Teach-the-Brain

Teach-the-Brain (http://www.teach-the-brain.org/forums/index.php)
-   John Nicholson (http://www.teach-the-brain.org/forums/forumdisplay.php?f=39)
-   -   Thinking (http://www.teach-the-brain.org/forums/showthread.php?t=940)

John Nicholson 29-12-2008 01:30 AM

Thinking
 
NEW THINK FROM A BRAIN SCIENTIST

ALISON GOPNIK
Psychologist, UC-Berkeley; Coauthor, The Scientist In the Crib

Imagination is Real
Recently, I've had to change my mind about the very nature of knowledge because of an obvious, but extremely weird fact about children - they pretend all the time. Walk into any preschool and you'll be surrounded by small princesses and superheroes in overalls - three-year-olds literally spend more waking hours in imaginary worlds than in the real one. Why? Learning about the real world has obvious evolutionary advantages and kids do it better than anyone else. But why spend so much time thinking about wildly, flagrantly unreal worlds? The mystery about pretend play is connected to a mystery about adult humans - especially vivid for an English professor's daughter like me. Why do we love obviously false plays and novels and movies?
The greatest success of cognitive science has been our account of the visual system. There's a world out there sending information to our eyes, and our brains are beautifully designed to recover the nature of that world from that information. I've always thought that science, and children's learning, worked the same way. Fundamental capacities for causal inference and learning let scientists, and children, get an accurate picture of the world around them - a theory. Cognition was the way we got the world into our minds.
But fiction doesn't fit that picture - its easy to see why we want the truth but why do we work so hard telling lies? I thought that kids' pretend play, and grown-up fiction, must be a sort of spandrel, a side-effect of some other more functional ability. I said as much in a review in Science and got floods of e-mail back from distinguished novel-reading scientists. They were all sure fiction was a Good Thing - me too, of course, - but didn't seem any closer than I was to figuring out why.
So the anomaly of pretend play has been bugging me all this time. But finally, trying to figure it out has made me change my mind about the very nature of cognition itself.
I still think that we're designed to find out about the world, but that's not our most important gift. For human beings the really important evolutionary advantage is our ability to create new worlds. Look around the room you're sitting in. Every object in that room - the right angle table, the book, the paper, the computer screen, the ceramic cup was once imaginary. Not a thing in the room existed in the Pleistocene. Every one of them started out as an imaginary fantasy in someone's mind. And that's even more true of people - all the things I am, a scientist, a philosopher, an atheist, a feminist, all those kinds of people started out as imaginary ideas too. I'm not making some relativist post-modern point here, right now the computer and the cup and the scientist and the feminist are as real as anything can be. But that's just what our human minds do best - take the imaginary and make it real. I think now that cognition is also a way we impose our minds on the world.
In fact, I think now that the two abilities - finding the truth about the world and creating new worlds-are two sides of the same coins. Theories, in science or childhood, don't just tell us what's true - they tell us what's possible, and they tell us how to get to those possibilities from where we are now. When children learn and when they pretend they use their knowledge of the world to create new possibilities. So do we whether we are doing science or writing novels. I don't think anymore that Science and Fiction are just both Good Things that complement each other. I think they are, quite literally, the same thing.

---- http://www.brainconnection.com/topics/?main=conv/gopnik

READ MORE ABOUT THIS SCIENTIST

A VITAL SITE http://www.pdkintl.org/kappan/k_v89/k0802jen.htm
Hi papertalker i suffer with you the lack of responce to your main purpose in life the promotion of Pupets in teaching with me its the abacus and teaching every child to read well and enjoy it,

full mentall involvement with the story and concentration involved is where the massive teaching bennifit comes from, your remarks on new thinking are very relevent , just keep kicking and one day we will walk through the door to the future together. :pcprob: :pcprob:

John Nicholson 08-01-2009 08:03 PM

PSI

Parents Showing Initiative
Building ability and IQ
Six tricks for six

Maths Reading & the Skeleton of Geography
Chess Piano & Table Tennis (start with hands)

These activities need starting around four years of age, but I take on the point as regards kumin the older they are when they start the faster they will learn.

These six activities between 4 & 6 should be the basis of all early education should it be the child educated at home in a bush school provision with young volunteer teachers, or as we are trying to achieve: the basis of our common sense assistance to our own children within the standard UK primary education.

This is a new format for presenting our

“Showing Is Knowing”

The natural way we teach and learn.
IE Starting point “Show me” a capital L, Show me your left arm, show me your left eye shut, show me how you turn to the left. After one week of this combined procedure under the “Show me your left hand” command the combined routine would become a permanent memory fixed for life at four years old.


On to show me Mr Five Show me Mr Six

Show me ten show me eight show me four

Every thing can become a series of Show me routines.

The physical routines build the permanent memories, which provide the child with automatic ability.

I think you can make a start, and then we could be both be recognised for creating this easy learning routine which will obviously become international standard practice.

LEFT TO RIGHT IS THE WAY WE READ
REMEMBER THIS ONLY TO SUCEED

In all initial internal memos it is best to include every original ideas for mutual consideration, as the above two lines and below.

We could imprint left by insisting every child only put up its left hand in primary schools, for an odd week ok.
Always, Murder, to regimented I think.

But on the basis of good Habits?





WHAT IS A PRIMARY SHOOL

It is by far the most important school any child will ever attend

Its practical purpose is that of software installation.
The major part of that installation is being committed quite naturally, daily mental realisations are being absorbed continually throughout our primary school life.

The human mind is like an iceberg, two thirds of it is invisible and during the five years in primary schools the major part of our software ability is being laid down quite naturally.

The visible software is in providing the child with the essential working tools for teaching itself everything that has to be committed to the human mind during a life time.

The two major parts of brain processing are, mathematics for the basis of calculation and reading/writing for the means of information exchange, a geography skeleton can be easily acquired by familiarisation with the world map, where every child can acquire a good working knowledge of the position of every one of the two hundred or so independent countries in our world.

Once the world skeleton is in place, committing the awareness of physical features, the rivers mountains and seas, alongside the cities towns and land usage, is assisted greatly by the practical reality of having committed the structure of our land and sea mass early in our education.

The second line of our showing tricks, chess piano playing and table tennis are all parts and parcel of improving our neural structure, essential in building instantaneous natural thinking ability and keeping those thinking abilities at their highest possible level throughout our lives.

How do we teach these three essential skills to very young children?

They are best taught by means of physically showing as we expand this essential, early and easy learning system, detailed instruction information will no doubt become ever more available.

What do we know about teaching chess? We already have a realisation that the very young learner/student copies exactly the movements of the master, during this process the showing of practical moves are being laid down as permanent memory.



John Nicholson 06-03-2009 12:10 AM



“What we demonstrate is that we can change the way the brain works,”
Rosemary you are a special person not only because you are the first person in the world to join me in the most exiting journey I have ever undertaken, but you are as exited at the prospect of easily achieved universal education as I, and to what it will mean to the individual lives of millions of children with little hope without reading and counting skills. There is no expectation of a peaceful world without sufficient food and adequate power, no hope of that without Education, research, and motivation which is dependant on individual knowledge and effort.

My journey started thirteen years ago, when I saw Chinese Children of five years of age instantly shouting answers to sums a European child of eight years of age could not manage. (They had been taught arithmetic on a Chinese Abacus.) Their outstanding ability was obvious, I taught my four year old daughter to read (Interpret) a five strand ten bobbin abacus the next day. I had made an amazing discovery, that we can change the way the brain works,”

I was already on the hook, how did we learn everything we do know, where did we learn everything we know, when did we learn everything we know, why did we learn everything we know and the most important question of all, what do we know.


Why was I so exited by the abacus, my hypothesis was thus, if we can teach arithmetic so easily, it is most likely that we can teach everything quickly, and so I began my journey of brain research, using my five friends, how, when, where, why and what. I consult with them on every occasion. They tell me the mind works far faster then we can think, thinking about thinking is what I do. What else are our minds for other then to reason with. We cannot reason without language, but we can learn without language, most of what we learn is from experience, but to reason we can call on the words of others, as I called on Socrates to explain to us all how little we shall ever know.



Dyslexia Studies Catch Neuroplasticity at Work


Researchers using functional magnetic resonance imaging, or fMRI, have detected which parts of the brain become stronger as children with dyslexia develop their ability to read. As reported in the journal Neuropsychologia, follow-up scans one year after the children received 100 hours of remedial reading from teachers showed that this increase in activation continued, reaching normal levels in the left parietal lobe.

These fMRI scans reveal the vigor of neuroplasticity, the process by which neurons create new connections among themselves.

“What we demonstrate is that we can change the way the brain works,”

says Marcel Just, director of the Center for Cognitive Brain Imaging at Carnegie Mellon, who conducted the research.

“The study shows that we can make a brain area more active through remedial training.”

New connections among neurons preserve memories and make learning possible, but they also fortify brain functions. Research has shown that a pianist, for example, through practice, develops neural pathways in the motor cortex that make subtle finger movements possible. Blind people who read Braille actually expand the region of the somatosensory cortex devoted to processing input from their reading finger.

And children with dyslexia, according to Just’s findings, can strengthen connections in parts of the brain that enhance their ability to read. Teachers have long recognized that children with dyslexia can improve their reading ability, but imaging is just beginning to provide evidence of the changes in the brain that make this possible.

Nadine Gaab, an assistant professor of pediatrics at Children’s Hospital Boston, along with colleagues at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, performed fMRI scans on 22 children with dyslexia and 23 normal readers, all about 10 years old, while they listened to typical speech sounds. She found that normal readers showed activation in the frontal lobe in response to rapid changes of sound, while children with dyslexia did not.

“We are currently using fMRI to look for neural pre-markers for reading,” Gaab says. “We hope we will be able to identify these markers prior to the onset of reading in order to identify children at risk.”


Gaab’s findings support research conducted by Paula Tallal, who, more than 35 years ago, identified dyslexia as a problem involving the processing of speech sounds.

“When you start to read, you have to learn how to go inside of a word and recognize smaller, faster units of sound,” says Tallal, a professor of neuroscience and psychiatry at Rutgers University.


Sally Shaywitz, director of the Yale Center for the Study of Learning and Attention, has used fMRI to compare brain activity in dyslexic children and in normal readers while they sound out nonsense words such as “jeat” and “lete.” The large differences she found constitute what she calls a “neurological signature” for dyslexia.

For example, she found that normal readers displayed greater activity on the left side of the brain, especially the parieto-temporal region—the same region that got stronger in the students Just studied after they worked with remedial reading teachers.

But dyslexia is not a problem confined to a single area of the brain, and explanations of the disorder implicate several brain functions.

In the 19th century, dyslexia was known as “word blindness,” a phrase that suggests visual difficulties as the cause. A small percentage of children with dyslexia do have problems seeing words. Deaf children with the disorder, for example, cannot hear phonemes—the one-syllable sounds that make up spoken words—which are believed to confuse dyslexic children with normal hearing, so their reading difficulties must be visual. And in 1982 physiologist John Stein of Oxford found that some children with dyslexia have trouble focusing on words and scanning text smoothly. Some researchers also suspect problems in the cerebellum, which might help explain the balance and coordination difficulties of some children with dyslexia.

But a rapidly growing body of research suggests that the vast majority of children with dyslexia have trouble distinguishing among phonemes. They may have trouble hearing the difference between “ba” and “pa,” for example, or “mif” and “tif.” While they can say “cat,” they may have trouble distinguishing the three phonemes that make up the word: “kuh,” “aah,” and “tuh.”

As a result, children with dyslexia have trouble with the fundamental task of reading, which involves translating letters on the page into phonemes and then building those phonemes into words.

Tallal has applied this hypothesis to develop effective, computer-based remedial reading programs. She also would like to see neuroplasticity used to improve memory, attention, processing speed and sequencing skills, which are vital to all learning.

“In our schools we’ve focused on improving the curriculum, the teachers and the medications we give children, but we’ve never focused on improving the brain the child brings to the classroom,” Tallal says. “That brain can be modified.”

And those modifications are not limited to children.

Ways of Changing the Brain

Not so long ago, scientists viewed the brain as a form of concrete—soft and easily shaped in youth, but gradually hardening over the years into a rigid organ highly resistant to change.


But scientists now recognize that the brain remains surprisingly plastic and resilient throughout life, which creates opportunities for adults to make positive changes in their neural connections through focused attention and practice.

“Neurology, psychology, speech therapy, education, sports, music—all of these domains will be improved as we apply the laws of neuroplasticity,” says Norman Doidge, a faculty member at Columbia University’s Center for Psychoanalytic Training and Research and the University of Toronto’s Department of Psychiatry, and author of The Brain That Changes Itself.
Doidge presents many examples in his book of how neuroplasticity can change brain function dramatically.

Doidge also tells of a woman whose sense of balance was destroyed by an antibiotic, making it almost impossible for her to walk. She regained her balance, however, with the help of the late University of Wisconsin neuroscientist Paul Bach-y-Rita, who devised a helmet that sent signals about the orientation of her head to a device on her tongue. By learning to keep the signals centered on her tongue, the woman trained her brain to recognize when her head was upright.


He believes fMRI evidence of neuroplasticity can be used to diagnose dyslexia and other brain problems, and to test proposed therapies.
“We can use fMRI to evaluate educational approaches and see which ones are getting us to the desired brain end state,” says Just. “There were these endless phonics wars, for example. It was like debating how many angels can dance on the head of a pin.


Now, with fMRI, you can see which methods work best. Plus you can see what kinds of problems with reading children are having, which would provide a better idea of how to remediate.”
This without any doubt the best written article on brain research i have read in thirteen years research J--N and this will help any parent teaching their own child to read

http://www.riggsinst.org/BrainPower.aspx

John Nicholson 11-03-2009 10:09 AM

---------P S I ----------- parents showing inititive
 
I AM OUT OF SPACE ABOVE PLEASE READ THE RIG INSTITUTE READING WEBSITE ABOVE
"If we teach our children early enough, it will affect the organization, or 'wiring,' of their brains."
Michael Phelps, UCLA biophysicist

WHY MUSIC

PSI

Parents Showing Initiative
Building ability and IQ
Six tricks for six




http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/5362670.stm

Music training boosts the brain

Music appears to have a profound effect on the brain
Music lessons can improve memory and learning ability in young children by encouraging different patterns of brain development, research shows.
Canadian scientists compared children aged four to six who took music lessons for a year with those who did not.

They found the musical group performed better on a memory test also designed to assess general intelligence skills such as literacy and maths ability.

The study, by McMaster University, is published online by the journal Brain.

It is clear that music is good for children's cognitive development

Dr Takako Fujioka

The researchers also measured changes in the children's brain responses to sounds during the year.

They found changes developed in the musical group in as little as four months.

Previous studies have shown that older children given music lessons recorded greater improvements in IQ scores than children given drama lessons.

But lead researcher Professor Laurel Trainor said: "This is the first study to show that brain responses in young, musically trained and untrained children change differently over the course of a year."

Brain measurements

The researchers focused on 12 children, six of whom attended a Suzuki music school, using a Japanese approach which encourages children to listen to and imitate music before they attempt to read it. The other six had no music lessons outside school.

They measured brain activity using a technique called magnetoencephalography (MEG) while the children listened to two types of sounds: a violin tone and a white noise burst.

All the children recorded larger responses when listening to the violin tones compared with the white noise - indicating more brain power was being deployed to process meaningful sounds.

In addition, all children responded more quickly to the sounds over the course of the year of the study - suggesting a greater efficiency of the maturing brain.

However, when the researchers focused on a specific measurement related to attention and sound discrimination, they found a greater change over the year among the Suzuki children.

Professor Trainor said this difference, coupled with the better performance of the Suzuki children in the memory test suggested musical training was having a profound impact.

He said: "It suggests that musical training is having an effect on how the brain gets wired for general cognitive functioning related to memory and attention."

Dr Takako Fujioka, of the Baycrest's Rotman Research Institute, also worked on the study.

He said: "It is clear that music is good for children's cognitive development and that music should be part of the pre-school and primary school curriculum."

The next phase of the study will look at the benefits of musical training in older adults.



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SEE ALSO
Music 'aids the healing process'
19 Jul 06 | Health
Music 'can reduce chronic pain'
28 May 06 | Health
Music training 'good for heart'
28 Sep 05 | Health


RELATED INTERNET LINKS
Brain
McMaster Institute for Music and the Mind
Rotman Research Institute
The BBC is not responsible for the content of external internet sites

John Nicholson 11-03-2009 11:11 AM

Table Tennis
 
PSI

Parents Showing Initiative
Building ability and IQ
Six tricks for six

Maths Reading & the Skeleton of Geography
Chess Piano & Table Tennis (start with hands)

These activities need starting around four years of age, but obviously the older they are when they start the faster they will learn.

These six activities between 4 & 6 should be the basis of all early education should it be the child educated at home in a bush school provision with young volunteer teachers, or as we are trying to achieve: the basis of our common sense assistance to our own children within the standard UK primary education.

This is a new format for presenting our

“Showing Is Knowing”

Chess permits freedom of permutations within a framework of set rules and prescribed movements. Because a chess player cannot move absolutely as he likes, either in terms of the rules or in terms of the exigencies of the particular game, has he no freedom of move? The separate games of chess I play with existence has different rules from your and every other game; the only similarity is that each of our games always has rules. The gifts, inherited and acquired, that are special to me are the rules of the game; and the situation I am in at any given moment is the situation of the game. My freedom is the choice of action and the power of enactment I have within the rules and situation of the game. (Fowles, 1964. The Aristos)




CBBC Newsround - Why I love table tennis
Skills required To play table tennis you need good hand and eye coordination. Top tips If you want to play table tennis then you should find out about your local table tennis club.


CHESS? YES CHESS

MATHS IN ITS EARLY STAGES IS ALL PERFECT MEMORY

AS IS CHESS

Surely every child will learn many games in its lifetime, but we need a standard product, one game that every child in the world can learn and benefit from.
Teaching and playing chess daily will provide the time to mix ever child with the maximum number of its fellow pupils, at the same time as it improves its chess, it will improve its speaking ability its confidence in working and meeting others. Developing growing awareness of the differences and similarities within the widest possible sense of their school associates.

Their personal and interpersonal abilities will develop quite naturally under teacher supervision, as to chess we need to make them to play quickly, speed just as in mathematics is where natural thinking meets intellectual thinking.

Unlike arithmetic we can make mistakes in bundles, playing chess with a school full of fellow pupils, lose every game for a month and still learn many things quite naturally about our school friends quite safely.



Sport - Table Tennis Guide
A short guide to table tennis with tips on style and how to get involved

http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/othe...is/4752356.stm

Results from "CBBC Newsround"CBBC Newsround - Why I love table tennis
Skills required To play table tennis you need good hand and eye coordination. Top tips If you want to play table tennis then you should find out about your local table tennis club.

-- http://news.bbc.co.uk/cbbcnews/hi/ne...../4746550.stm

CBBC Newsround - Paul Drinkhall - Table tennis
But now I've been playing table tennis for quite a few years so now most of my friends are in the sport so that helps a lot when I travel.



--- http://news.bbc.co.uk/cbbcnews/hi/ne...../6103412.stm

More results from "CBBC Newsround"
Humber - Telling Lives Hull Sports Workshops- Table Tennis, Bilal Qassab,
Telling Lives, Hull Sports Workshops, Table Tennis, Bilal Qassab Table Tennis by Bilal Qassab Tell us about yourself: I am Kurdish and I play table tennis in Hull.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/humber/telling_...m_humber.shtml

South East Wales Streets of Cardiff - Cardiff 2005 - Stories from Roath & Penylan
I remember Helen Witty, Phillip Squires, Peter Williams, Alan Dukes, Ann Donovan, Angela Beams.I used to play in the table tennis team which was coached by Peter Clarke.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/wales/southeas....enylan .shtml

BBC Wales - Raise Your Game - Nathan Stephens
He saw me doing some bench presses and playing table tennis and asked me to come along to try out.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/wales/raiseyour...stephens.shtml

Dorset - People
A Dorchester bodybuilding champ has a unique way of keeping fit - playing table tennis.

www.bbc.co.uk/dorset/people/profiles/

Results from "Sport - Table Tennis"Sport - Table Tennis - Teen star making 'ping pong' cool . Last updated: 9 Oct 2007
Table tennis is like my baby," Knight told BBC Sport. Everybody has played table tennis, for fun or seriously, but we have to take it to the next level.

-- http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/olym...is/7018334.stm

Sport - Table Tennis - Table tennis tactics . Last updated: 4 Aug 2008
All the different styles of play in table tennis.. There are a wide variety of shots used in table tennis.

-- http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/olym...is/7541936.stm

More results from "Sport - Table Tennis"
Sport - Sport Guide - Beginner's guide to table tennis . Last updated: 24 Apr 2004
All you need to know about table tennis ahead of the 2004 Athens Olympics.. There will be four table tennis events in Athens, men's and women's singles and doubles.

-- http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/olym...../3107665.stm

Mid Wales Sport - My route to Beijing
Whilst in hospital I started playing table tennis, after some gentle persuasion. This was held down in Stoke Manderville Hospital and I competed in the bowls and table tennis.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/wales/mid/sites...rtdavies.shtml

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

John Nicholson 12-03-2009 01:26 AM

How to Teach Your Child Geography


Low case country names for political boundaries

Geography best demonstrates the technique of mind maps, layer after layer of information is visually being assembled. We are starting with the political boundaries of every country in the world, the name of each country is identified by name, written in low case. Over 200 different countries and the major seas are written in low case and also all placed on a special tick board in alphabetical order above the map of the world, in order to identify each country quickly and register the fact that the child has identified that particular country from reading its name and knowing its position in the world.

We can clearly see that each country is being identified in one layer of knowledge


this technique clearly demonstrates how a child or adult builds up their knowledge, layer after layer, in reality we hardly notice how we are assembling knowledge. It is only when we systemise the acquisition of knowledge, that we can come to understand, how knowledge is built up within the mind. Having identified this process from research carried out on the development of Abacus One, I have applied the same mental disciplines in reading and geography. The effect of treating reading as essential layers of knowledge has a dramatic effect on how best we can learn to read quickly and easily. Techniques within the assimilation of knowledge learned from the Abacus are being applied throughout education with massive benefits to all the pupils.

In using an actual map it allows instant comprehension of the technique, there is nothing special about the subject, it is in fact how we learn every subject that we need to understand throughout our lives.

Our abilities in speech are the first of three Basic skills, reading and mathematics are not learnt naturally, but we must imitate the natural acquisition of speech if we are to be able to use those two skills, as efficiently and as easily as we use speech.

Once a Child has fluent ability in all three Basic skills, it has the ability to gather knowledge which is available in abundance throughout the Western world, the Third World is more difficult, but once children have gained thorough abilities in primary education it is a relatively simple matter to guide them to libraries, newspapers, the best of TV documentaries, radio and of course the Internet.


And so to geography.

Chanting and singing are well known and well researched techniques for quickly establishing rapid memory lock in. Contingent in this it is in geography I have developed the concept of a young Eskimo boy called Zig Zag, who travels around the world chanting the differing countries of the world has he takes an imaginary journey.

ZIG ZAG



Zigzag is an Eskimo boy. He is just twelve years old. He is the first person to graduate from The Bush School. From when he was born until his twelfth birthday, he has never met a schoolteacher. His twelfth birthday was on the 13th September 2001.



In the morning his father told him about the twin towers in New York. He had heard it on the radio in his snowmobile.

“It is a dreadful thing” said his father, Wise Owl “There is no real reason why people should fall out and behave in such a way.



Wise Owl explained to Zigzag that thousands of years ago human beings needed to protect themselves and the instinct to think of themselves as tribes had remained within them. He said it could be seen at a football match or in wars between countries, but it was less trouble at a football match.



Zigzag’s mother, Irene, who had taught him to speak and read, told him that she believed only politicians should be allowed to fight. If they were to risk their own lives first, there would soon be no wars. She told him about the different countries in the world and about the different religions.



She explained to him about other forces and ideas. She told him about humanity, she explained that the world was full of people with many different ideas, but she believed that there were forces of natural behaviour and common sense that would eventually affect the way the world was run. She explained to Zigzag that there were many different religions in the world and that they appeared to be fighting a losing battle betwee the modern way that young children behaved and the old ideas. She explained to him that within human behaviour the good things should be developed and the bad things about human nature understood and managed.



Zigzag took out his Kayak and went fishing, which he did most days. He enjoyed himself, sometimes on his own and sometimes with his friends.

He liked to find the fish that fed the family and many years ago his father had shown him how to fish. His father had built for him a kayak and shown him how to build one. They had built it from animal skins and the short trees that grew by the beach. His father told him that he needed a kayak for two in order for him to take his friends around and show them how to fish.



As it was his birthday Zigzag was excited and rushed down to the sea on his own. He caught three large fish. There was some sun shining over the water and as he had risen early in his excitement the warmth of the early day at the end of the Northern Summertime allowed him to sleep.



During his sleep he dreamt of the countries his mother had told him about.

She had told him about her imaginary journeys that she had made in her head after reading about all the countries in the world. As he dreamt he wished he could follow her journey around the world, he wished it so hard suddenly he imagined his two-seater kayak had wings! Instead of paddling he was steering his little two-seater kayak aeroplane gently around the world remembering the chant that his mother had used to teach him about where the countries were.



She said first there was the BIG SIX – two of them he knew well, because he lived in the Arctic Circle – 2 A’s for Alaska and The Arctic, a C and a G for Canada and Greenland. South to U and M, for the United States and Mexico.



South through the MAGNIFICENT SEVEN G – B – E and H – N – C and on to Panama. From Panama to The Caribbean, North to South – The Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti and Dominica – down through nine islands.



To South America, the lucky thirteen, four threes and big Brazil. ECV and GSF and across the PBP, down to Chile, Argentina and out from Uruguay.



From the Falkland Isles to Europe, through the Atlantics – North and South, to the Islands, Iceland and Ireland two I’s and another E England.



Cross the North Sea First, Norway, Sweden, Finland and down through ELL, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and back to Portugal. There’s nine in a line, take Portugal,Spain, France, little Belgium, Holland , Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway.



GPBR

Germany, Poland Bella Russia and Russia



To Czechs Slovak and grain in the Ukraine.



Then ski with me in the I.S.A. ( Italy, Switzerland and Austria) onto Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania and Moldavia.



Through the four at war, Croatia, Bosnia, Yugoslavia and Macedonia.



Albania and Kosova, then to the Islands of Greece, travel East through The Mediterranean to Cyprus and Malta, Sicily, Crete, Sardinia, Corsica, Balearics, through the Straits of Gibralter to Madiera, and the Canaries



Step into North Africa,

First Line 5 for MATLE

Second line W double M N C S double E E Six plus one E

Western Sahara, Mauritania, Mali, Nigeria, Chad, Sudan and Eritrea and Ethiopia



Third line S triple G S L I Senegal, Gambia, Guinea Bissau and Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia and the Ivory coast



Fourth line G T double B N triple C

Ghana, Togo, Benin and Burkina Faso, Nigeria, e.g. and 4 C’s Equatorial Guinea Gabon and 4 C’s Cameroon, Central Africa Republic and the 2 Congo’s



Fifth line U K S D R B T give us Uganda, Kenya, Somali and Djibouti and Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzania



Sixth line A double Z 2 M’s and Madagascar, N B S with Lesotho and Swaziland

Angola, Zambia and Zimbabwe, Malawi, Mozambique and Madagascar. Namibia, Botswana and South Africa plus L S






Madgascar and Mauritius and North to the Seychelles to Yemen, Oman, U.A.E. (United Arab Emirates) Quator and Saudi Arabia , Kuwait to Israel, Jordan, Iraq and Iran, Syria and Lebanon , Turkey, Georgia , Armenia and Azabajhan . Over the Caspian Sea to the seven STANS

Turkistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzestan, Kazakhstan and two old STANS– Afghanistan and Pakistan.



NIS and the three B’s Nepal, India and Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Burma and Bangladesh.



Go North to China and Mongolia, East to Korea and Japan



South again to T.C. & L.V. - Thailand, Cambodia, Laos and the Vietnam

Down to Malaya and Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei and the Philippines



We start in the North and end in the South zig-zagging from Papua New Guinea and the island states of The Pacific, to Australia, Tasmania , New Zealand – North and South



Finally South to the Antarctic



West to East


Zigzag woke quickly when he felt the chill of The Antarctic winter in his dream.

Combined sound and sight memory

Every parent is best qualified to teach their own child
phonetic reading arithmetic and two layers of Geography

THESE LESSONS COMBINE RECOGNITION OF LETTERS AND COUNTRIES

John Nicholson 12-03-2009 02:08 AM

The Abacus One
 
How to Teach Your Child Basic Numeracy
Even Albert Einstein used his fingers to count with. To teach you’re child to count to ten using their fingers from left to right. Put the numbers, on a sticker, on the nails, hold your own hands over a table and firmly bang on the table each finger in rhythm one to five and six to ten counting aloud (shout for ten) The child will always relate the fingers to the ABACUS



Before a child enters primary school, most learning is taking place naturally (unconsciously between the parents, the environment and the child.) From an informal learning environment, the child is pitched directly into formal education.

"Abacus One" Can Benefit Your Child...
It ensures educational equality.

Introduction to the abacus at the earliest possible age, even before formal primary school provides a link between natural education (awareness) and (formal) lessons being given to the child within a group or classroom situation.

The abacus is easily understood, natural awareness allows the child to relate it directly to the fingers. Assessment of the child's maths ability is easily accomplished alongside that of their peers. Unless the child is mathematically competent, and continually improving it's basic reading standards, neither the abacus nor initial phonetic instruction in reading should be abandoned. The more difficult that the child finds learning, the more important these two teaching modes become.

Children can be introduced to the Abacus at any age obviously the teaching methods vary according to the capability of the child, their age and the number of children being taught at any one time. The web site Abacus and alphabet is primarily to inform parents how to teach their own children in mathematics and how to assist on a one-to-one basis in helping their own children, to understand the phonetic variation involved in the differing combinations of letters. Basic reading at an early age.

For the purposed explanations, as regards the web site, we are considering that children are being introduced to the Abacus as early as three years old, it is not harmful to introduce a young child at any age purely to understand the mechanical facilities that it offers in teaching.

Chance Encounter.

Is a variation of Abacus one, it is a clearly laid out counting board with numerals one to 10 in place at either end of the board, virtually all of the words that a child will use in early mathematics are written on it, three jumbo ten sided dice in differing colours are at used to play the game. Each colour represents the column being used for instance, you would start a child with one dice and one column, obviously a second column and an alternative colour marker have to be used in order to comprehend the technique of transfer ten TT. Working with a very young child that has already learnt to count on it’s fingers to ten, it is easily possible to transfer that concept to Abacus One and the Chance Encounter Score Board.

Abacus One

After exploring all the possibilities that chance encounter offers in relation to learning mathematics, along with the rules of the game provided by a working mathematician a theoretical physicist Winston Hagston, an Emeritus professor of theoretical physics at Hull university, and everything you can develop yourself to Illustrate as many mathematical concepts as you can possibly find, developing the child's ability at all stages. At approximately four years of age the child is ready to Read the written words on Abacus one, should the child find this difficult at first, it is possible to mark with a red felt pain one to ten in numerals for the short time it will take for the child to learn to read the written words for numbers. With Abacus one it is possible for the child to count through all the times table, reinforcing the chanting of the times table, which is so easily learnt especially when it is reinforced by an actual demonstration of the transferring of numbers. Instant memory recall of the times table, will be absorbed and retrained for life by utilising these two resources, Abacus one and the chanted times table.

From four years of age a child will be able to do mathematics on the Abacus working either from left to right or right to left understanding and retaining all the methodology needed to add and subtract numbers on the three columns. Once these concepts have been fully understood in relation to numbers up to 100, the concepts can easily be transferred to thousands and millions. Multiplication and division can be demonstrated on Abacus one all concepts are interchangeable.

Once children have been given a full background in mathematics using the Abacus's they can start to work on mathematics using the systematically based primary mathematics written entirely with accelerated comprehension in mind by Professor Hagston utilising all the concepts that have been reinforced and absorbed by children learning their basic arithmetic on the Abacus.






The Abacus One

Benefits of the Abacus one

First of all it teaches a child to count
It teaches a child to recognise the numbers in written English
It teaches a child maths at the child’s own pace
It gives a child a mathematic map for life
A child will understand the arrangement quickly
It develops short cuts in mental arithmetic
It gives a child confidence in their own ability
It develops four concepts in mathematics, counting, speaking counting, reading counting, comprehending counting in Arabic numerals
If the sum is stated correctly, it cannot be wrong
It encourages a child to experiment in maths and to answer many sums quickly
No matter how difficult a child finds arithmetic, it will gain speed and confidence at its own rate
It allows parents to help the child in understanding school maths at home
Because of the physical movement, it distracts the child from thinking it as a formal lesson
It allows the original teacher (Mother) to continue to teach after the most important lesson that she has already bestowed on her child, speech
It is not intended to replace the calculator, only to understand it
It makes arithmetic interesting
It makes maths easy after establishing the rules
Abacus One is essential for high speed comprehension (accelerated learning)
Either parent or teacher or older child can demonstrate Abacus One (children teach children)
Boredom is the enemy in education in both child and adult
How many half numbers in ten, how many quarter numbers in ten, how many eighths in ten and how many tenths in ten?
The child moves naturally from fractions to division
From division to decimal
It gives an instant answer
The three stemmed version is for children aged 2 to 5
The seven stemmed version is for children aged 5 plus
Once the child has gained the preliminary concept, it’s rate of learning leaps beyond the normal Western educational expectations





--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

For further information please contact John Nicholson on +44 (0)1964 551945
Abacus House, The Green, Bishop Burton, East Yorks, England, HU17 8QF


John Nicholson 28-04-2009 12:04 AM

Why Are Our Brains Far More Inteligent Then We Are?
 
INTODUCTION TO PARENTS TEACHING
THEIR OWN CHILD TO READ AND COUNT


WHY ARE OUR BRAINS FAR MORE INTELIGENT THEN WE ARE?

Simply because brain function, has been developed by trial and error over millions of years, where only perfection was acceptable.

The first lesson a parent must learn, is the concept of perfection. Your baby is perfect. Your baby and every baby is born with massive abilities, whatever nationality or colour, our species have one thing in common, that make us all equal. We are as one in the manner in which we think, this realisation will lead eventually to a peaceful world where our individual talents will provide for all.

We are born with a massive capability to learn anything and everything, only failure to develop our individual natural abilities, stands between a troubled unequal world or a peaceful coexistence, with the provision of adequate food and housing for a stable world population.

The first realisation we all must be clear about, is that we are programmed quite naturally to copy both our natural language sounds, which enable us to speak to each other, but we are also programmed to copy human activity, just from watching and doing what those around us are doing. Those ancient skills we needed to survive have been exchanged for what we all recognise as the vital basic skills, that every one of us needs, to survive and prosper in today’s world.

Obviously all children need to be cared for, by both the family and the state, in case of the first few years of a Childs life it is the parents, grandparents and close family members that are best suited for care in these early years in later years there are play groups and infant schools, The real truth however, is that when a child needs to be taught to count and read, it is in the care of its mother. It is my contention that to simplify this early teaching, we must create a universal model, that is rigorously tested, proven to be totally effective , consistently under review, well publicised and adopted by every country. Teaching every child to count read and think effectively is best achieved by the child’s parents provide they are made aware of these facts.

The earlier we are taught to read count and think, the better we can read count and think for life.

In order to insure this is possible I have developed simple effective demonstrations which every three/four year old child can follow simply turning these demonstrations into ability in counting reading and thinking.

Our two hands provide numeric meaning, an abacus provides that every arithmetic process can be visualised and committed to every child’s mental awareness.

CREATING

“ The perfect memory of every physical mathematic process for life.”

Counting precedes reading by providing the neural pathways vital in memory linking.

For reading we simple turn chanting into visual memory, and the visual memories into the alternative sounds of letters, by using three dimensional objects every child can name all ready. So creating automatic subconscious permanent memories of the appropriate sounds in the differing word and letter combinations we use to read with.

John Nicholson 06-05-2009 01:06 AM

Is Your Mind Working In The Same Way As Mine
 
THINKING OF THINKING


thinking of thinking, our awareness zone is obviously our conscious mind where we do our reasoning.

but our subconscious mind which is obviously far more powerful will not use words it will only use images ( THINK OF YOUR early LIFE ) their will not have been a word in that instant thinking


so as I believe we turn whatever we learn into images and then we store it among our real visual images, where what we have learnt becomes mixed up with what we have seen, a massive hidden box of information, as we search for knowledge we draw down on what we need translating some of it into our consciousness where we can use it in whatever we are reasoning about.

When we speak we teach, so we create our best interpretation (instantaneously within natural speech) in words to describe whatever our reasoning process considers, unless of course we want to deceive those we are speaking to.

and so our subconscious mind delivers at will our best interpretation as words which are of course then interpreted back into visual images by those people we are speaking to.

an aside (you see what I mean) the most common expression used only to naturally.

WE YOU AND I HAVE NOT TO BE OVERSHADOWED BY ANY ONE NOR NEED ANY ONE ELSE EVER CONSIDER THEMSELVES GREATER THEN ANOTHER OR LESSER THEN ANOTHER

WE CONFIRM THIS INDIVIDUAL EQUALITY WITH OUR BIRTH BRAIN AN EQUALITY IN EVEN THE SIMPLEST OF HUMAN LIVES.

I NEVER HAVE ALLOWED ANY ARROGANT BASTARD TO GRIND ME DOWN NOR SHOULD ANY ONE OF US EVER ALLOW IT.
only experience divides any human being with another

“I quote from others only the better to express myself”

Montaigne's stated goal is to describe man, and especially himself, with utter frankness.

AS IS MINE

We are exactly what we think we are jn. Sat2nd May 2009

If I die without being included within books that list the most outstanding philosophers of all times it will only be because I failed.

I shall never be forgotten, simply because my work is to prove that every one of us is formed in the spirit of human equality and my intention is to prove it. I only need your help

John Nicholson, his book, his proverbs,
some his own and some he loves more than his own.


We think quite naturally at the speed of light but we reason quite slowly at the speed of life, our individual mind is where we live within.

As humans we only have three natural modes, teaching by speech or physical demonstration, learning by inquiry or listening reading and watching, but the most important mode of all is our human ability to reason, what is philosophy other then the eternal search for truth.

Our parents gave us life, we had no hand in it, in five weeks a puppy can imitate its mother, in five years our parents can fail to teach us to read and count. Universal innate abilities allow every one of us to read and count within five years.

Our parents owe each and every one of us the duty of teaching every one of us these basic skills, after all we teach ourselves to speak, but it is impossible to read and count without assistance.

AND SO I SHALL SHOW YOU HOW

We can teach our children to count first, simply because it is easier. Let us regard the teaching of counting as a father’s duty, his first vital link in his own child’s education, once a child can count efficiently its brain is ready for reading. Counting efficiently can be achieved in six months once the child can speak, the only reason we can fail them is because we have no realisation of just how easy it is, when we make it a universal practice.

So fathers and mothers I will show you JUST HOW now.

The method is in our own hands.

John Nicholson 29-06-2009 11:57 PM

Conversing helps language development more than reading alone
UCLA study finds that activities that get children 2 months to 48 months talking are most conducive to language acquisition
By Sarah Anderson| 6/29/2009 9:15:00 AM
Adult-child conversations have a more significant impact on language development than exposing children to language through one-on-one reading alone, according to a new study in the July issue of Pediatrics, the journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics.

"Pediatricians and others have encouraged parents to provide language input through reading, storytelling and simple narration of daily events," explains study's lead author, Dr. Frederick J. Zimmerman, associate professor in the Department of Health Services in the UCLA School of Public Health. "Although sound advice, this form of input may not place enough emphasis on children's role in language-based exchanges and the importance of getting children to speak as much as possible."

The study of 275 families of children ages 0-4 was designed to test factors that contribute to language development of infants and toddlers. Participants' exposure to adult speech, child speech and television was measured using a small digital language recorder or processor known as the LENA System. This innovative technology allowed researchers to hear what was truly going on in a child's language environment, facilitating access to valuable new insights.

The study found that back-and-forth conversation was strongly associated with future improvements in the child's language score. Conversely, adult monologueing, such as monologic reading, was more weakly associated with language development. TV viewing had no effect on language development, positive or negative.

Zimmerman adds, "What's new here is the finding that the effect of adult-child conversations was roughly six times as potent at fostering good language development as adult speech input alone."

Each day, children hear an average of some 13,000 words spoken to them by adults and participate in about 400 conversational turns with adults. More conversations mean more opportunities for mistakes and therefore more opportunities for valuable corrections. Furthermore, they also provide an opportunity for children to practice new vocabulary.

Parents should be encouraged not only to provide language input to their children through reading or storytelling but also to engage their children in two-sided conversations, the study concludes.

"Talk is powerful, but what's even more powerful is engaging a child in meaningful interactions — the 'give and take' that is so important to the social, emotional and cognitive development of infants and toddlers," says Dr. Jill Gilkerson, language research director at LENA Foundation and a study co-author.

"It is not enough to speak to children," Zimmerman adds. "Parents should also engage them in conversation. Kids love to hear you speak, but they thrive on trying speech out for themselves. Give them a chance to say what's on their minds, even if it's 'goo goo gah.'"


All research identifies the interaction between child and adult from very early days in the Childs life, as having the most effect on children’s uptake of language as against watching television or simply listening to an adult voice alone, obviously the older the child the more it can benefit from listening to a story. In our most advanced economies children are being consistently left watching television programs they do not really understand but appear to be fascinated by. If close mother child relationships are not possible grandparents or older siblings are valuable but interaction under supervision with older children needs to be considered as part and parcel of a modern education.
Clearly there are advantages in both directions from mixing children with older or younger children, something that happened quite naturally with larger families before effective birth control and economic necessity restricted the size of the western worlds families..

John Nicholson 04-07-2009 10:35 PM

Let Mr five show you one way only one way for every child to count on
 
HUMAN grown for perfection

THINK SLOW TO THINK FAST

http://scienceblogs.com/neurophiloso...com mentsArea


9999999999999998888888888 8877777777777666666666665 5555555544443333333333222 2222221111111111

John Nicholson 16-07-2009 01:36 PM

Our Perfect Brain
 
THE RATIONALE REGARDING THE HUMAN MIND


We have scientific proof that the modern mind is 50,000 years old.

Quite obviously human beings have moved around the Earth into different situations utilising different climates, developing different systems of working and living. Let us though, consider the possibility that we may all share exactly the same human brain, is it not obvious that we all think and utilise language. Languages have diversified over fifty thousand years, but this does not mean that we think any differently to those people that do not live in our society. There is now scientific evidence that the origins of human brain development began over 600 million years ago. With human evolution having such an extended period of development, is there any wonder that we may now consider that each and every person inhabiting the earth is now in the possession of a powerful brain having the common visual ability to remember the majority of events within our lives. Test your own visual image memory by thinking about your childhood remember your schooldays, University life or the professional and the industrial training we have had and the jobs that we have individually. Do we not all remember virtually everything important we have seen done and heard. Of course we cannot remember everything exactly, but we have' the facility to remember a great deal about our lives instantaneously. This instantaneous memory is quite natural. Adult instantaneous understanding. As the greater part of our thinking ability is visual' we consider images at the a speed of light, Within our individual human mind we consider ideas rapidly, my research and observations bring me to a realisation about human behaviour, our individual minds are never without consideration of the individual situations we find ourselves dealing with. I clearly recognise that we are either teaching in the manner of showing speaking and explaining, or we are making inquiry, listening learning and observing, then reasoning about what we have been told. Of course there are many things we know a great deal about, or on the other hand it could be something we know very little about, but we are consistently utilising our whole life experience to analyse the information we are given, in order to create within ourselves an opinion, and then consider any proposed actions that may be necessary.

With the development of the Internet we are all able to share information immediately, providing that we are able to read and count efficiently. It is vital in today's world that educational research proves and develops accelerated and improved learning techniques, which are available free to all on an international basis.

My personal dominant realisation is that parents teachers, educational experts on every subject alongside politicians and any one charged with delivery of education in any manner whatsoever need to consider that in normal health we are all born with a powerful brain. Loading that powerful brain with the essential software to utilise it correctly is time consuming.

I have devoted more than a decade of my life to the concept that we are all born with a near perfect brain. My personal instantaneous realisation, led me to understanding just how quickly we can all learn, when our individual brain software is established perfectly. My instant awareness that the abacus represents our formal pattern of numbers, where every child can easily grasp a visual realisation of every arithmetic principle we have to deal with. (The basis of every branch of mathematics and science) Not only does Abacus One provide any and every child that has it available to it with a perfectly able mental arithmetic ability at the highest natural level, it can also acquaint and perfect every child using it with the reading ability of all numbers in its natural language.

My research and reasoning abilities now lead me to believe, that without a standard formula backed up by international trials we shall consistently fail millions of children that could be simply taught to read count and think logically. Only parent power, using personal trials of my methods, will prove that step by step loading of perfect brains, with a standard formula for every brain works. A world standard for loading the software vital to enable every child, in counting reading and thinking logically, assisting their personal “instantaneous realisation abilities” further development from reading and arithmetic quantity awareness.

A perfected system for every child on earth.

EDD BALLS SUCK IT AND SEE please


.


EDD BALLS SUCK IT AND SEE please


John Nicholson 17-07-2009 10:49 AM

Research report backing up my findings
 
[size="4"][font="Arial Narrow"]A VERY GOOD ARTICAL ON A BABY BRAIN REGARDING NUMBER

Dr. S Dehaene

Not only is the capacity to associate a quantity meaning to a number automatic but it is also a
good example of an innate skill as Dr. Gopnik described. For instance some experiments have shown (THROUGH The intraparietal sulci situated in the parietal lobes.)
that children as young as four and a half months old are able to understand the difference between 1, 2,and 3. “Not only can they discriminate between 2 and 3 objects or 2 and 3 sounds but they can even combine them, so for instance if you show them a visual analogue of the operation 1 + 1, one object then the second object, they can expect that the result will be two objects and will show surprise if you present them with the impossible outcome of a single object”.
These elementary numerical expectations can be observed in experiments where 2 objects are
shown to an infant of 4 to 5 months and then hidden behind cardboard. Then one of the objects is taken away from behind the cardboard without the infant noticing it. When the cardboard is removed, the infant manifests surprise behaviors such as staring for a longer time at the sole remaining object or other facial display of surprise (raising eye brows or eyes going wide). This experience is a visual analog to the operation “2 minus 1”. The expression of surprise shows, at least, that children this young are capable of numerical expectations with respect to simple operations. In line with what Dr. Gopnik said about children constantly forming and evolving a theory about their surrounding environment, Dr. Dehaene states that these elementary numerical abilities could constitute an “elementary number theory”. What is important and noteworthy for infants here are quantity and the differences between “a lot” and “a few”. For instance, infants (as adults) will probably succeed at distinguishing between 28 and 56 objects whereas they will surely fail to discriminate between 55 and 56 objects. This is referred to as the _ which states that the ability to discriminate between two quantities increases with their numerical difference. Another feature of this theory is that it is easier for infants to distinguish between 2 and 3 objects than between 5 and 6 and it is very probably impossible for them to distinguish between 15 and 16 objects. This is referred to as
The higher the number of objects, the lower is infants’ performance at discriminating
between the two numbers (keeping equal the numerical distance between the two quantities to compare).

[color="DarkRed"]As with any innate skill, elementary numerical abilities evolve with an infants’ development
and education. Learning mathematics pushes the children to exceed their innate approximation skills.
That is, they become able to discriminate between 56 and 57, whether presented as visual symbols (i.e.
Arabic numbers) or written words (fifty-six and fifty-seven), they learn to perform arithmetic
operations and manipulations.
Dr. Dehaene introduced a simple brain model, one that he referred to as the “triple code
model”. This describes a system of brain areas active when children are learning or performing
arithmetical operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication or division20. The basic idea is that when
manipulating a number, a child does one of three actions:
_ Performs some visual manipulation (like seeing the number as a visual digit i.e. “3”);
_ Performs some linguistic manipulation (like hearing or reading the number as a word
i.e. “three”);
18 Dr. Dehaene, New York Conference.
19 Longer time than when, in a control experiment, the two objects remain behind the cardboard.
20 As Dr. Dehaene explained during the conference, the Triple Code model is a simplified model, a work in
progress, of what’s happening in the brain during mathematical operations.
16
_ Represents it as a quantity (3 is bigger than 1).
Each of these processes involves a different region of the brain (see Figure):
_ A visual subsystem localized on both sides of the brain behind the ear and under the brain;
_ A verbal subsystem situated in distributed regions of the left hemisphere;
_ The quantity subsystem situated on both sides of the brain diagonal to the ear.
This model attempts to show that depending on which arithmetic processes are undertaken,
information moves back and forth within these subsystems and recruits one, two, or all of them.
Dr. Dehaene cited an example of two seemingly similar calculations that recruit different
subsystems of the triple code model, one relying on the verbal system and another relying on the
quantity system. He presented subjects with exactly the same addition problem (4 + 5) but in two
different contexts. In one case they had to find the exact result, choosing between two results that were
both close to the correct result (they were obliged to do the exact calculation). In the other situation
they were given two false results, one grossly false and the other approximately correct. The evidence
showed that despite the superficial similarity between these two tasks, different brain regions were
21 Areas corresponding to the fusiform gyrus.
22 The perisylvian area
23 Areas corresponding to the interparietal lobes
17
recruited. The region most active for the approximation task was the quantity subsystem whereas the
region most active when performing the exact calculation task was the verbal subsystem.
One interesting and important educational
consequence coming from this model is
that it provides a possibility for explaining
the difficulty that almost all children have
when starting to learn math at school. As
Dr. Dehaene explained, “There could be
two causes for mathematical difficulties.
One possible cause is that some network,
like the quantity subsystem, might be
impaired or disorganized and as a result,
the person might lack access to information about the inclusion of numbers. Another cause, and one
which is much more common, is that they have to learn to connect a quantity representation with both
verbal and visual symbols.
This connection is long to be established, and it is difficult because it involves symbolic
transformations that come with experience, both educational and cultural. The process of quickly and
flexibly moving from one representation system to another appears to be a source of difficulty for many children.
This model goes beyond simply indicating the probable origin of mathematical difficulty
because it validates two very general properties of mathematical reasoning that support mathematical pedagogy research:
1. The possibility of thought without language.
2. The existence of unconscious processing in mathematics.
The feature of the triple code model that supports this “thought without language”
property is that the quantity representation system is independent from language and
provides a purely non-verbal representation of quantity. Dr. Dehaene gave the example
of a study at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in which bilingual subjects were trained with facts of arithmetic in one language during one session. They were then tested in the two languages they were familiar with to see whether there was a processing cost of being questioned in a different language to the one they had been trained in initially. What was observed was that tasks that imply exact calculation, partly based on the rote storing of the arithmetical facts, in the verbal subsystem, were dependent on language and were time delayed when languages were switched. However, tasks that relied on approximation showed no time delay when the language was switched.
In terms of educational pedagogy, the possibility of mathematical thought without language
emphasises the use of activity that favors the recruitment of the quantity representation system when teaching the number sense to children. One of the participants in a discussion group related to Dr.Dehaene’s research, added that, “that kind of concrete quantity subsystem is exploited in Montessori schools and also in Asian countries, where mathematical teaching is based on moving physical objects around, like the Abacus”, suggesting that, “this kind of a system works because numbers are presented nonverbally, that is, within the quantity subsystem, using sets of concrete objects and manipulating them.”
Dr. Dehaene further explained that the possibility of mathematical thought without language
emphasises that rote verbal learning is not sufficient. He also suggests that pedagogical material that emphasises a spatial or concrete objects metaphor for numbers, such as the metaphor of a number line, the Asian abacus or Maria Montessori’s number rods, may be particularly well adapted to teach number sense. This is already in use in several schools.
As an illustration of the efficacy of teaching mathematics by accessing the quantity
representation system, the Right Start program teaches basic arithmetical skills like counting,
correspondence between number and quantities, and the concept of the number line. This program teaches children a spatial analogue of numbers using physical objects like the game of “Snakes and Ladders”. This type of training has been successful in remediating children to such an extent that after going through 40 sessions of 20 minutes each, some of these kids started to bypass normally developing children in mathematical class. Interestingly the remediation occurred even if these kids could hardly read, confirming the dissociation between the number sense and language.


John Nicholson 17-07-2009 11:08 AM

Research Paper Cont
 
The feature of the triple code model that supports the property of unconscious
mathematical reasoning is the fact “that the access to quantity meaning of a number is a
completely automatic procedure in the human brain, that it is extremely fast, and that it can occur even if you have absolutely no awareness of it occurring.” In proof of this property, Dr. Dehaene described an experiment where the brain scans of subjects showed that they were processing quantity without being consciously aware of this type of processing.
He knew that the system was accessed unconsciously because in some experiments they used subliminal masking.


On a computer screen he presented a sequence of visual stimuli placed at the same location, which terminated with a clearly displayed digit, like the digit 9, visible for about 200 ms. The subjects were told that they have to decide whether this digit is larger or smaller than 5 by
University Press, Getty Center for Education in the Arts
Dr. Dehaene, New York Conference pressing the right or the left hand key. Prior to this, they only see rapid flashing of some letters. Unknown to the subject, another number is hidden within the sequence of letters. This number is presented during a short period (43 ms) and because the letters mask it both forward and backwards they cannot see it. Even though subjects do not report seeing this number, it is registered by the brain. He repeats the masked number twice. Using a brain scanning technique called “functional Magnetic
Resonance Imaging (fMRI)”, Dr. Dehaene noted that in the left and right parietal regions exactly the areas which are active when processing the quantity meaning of a number—there is more activation when the hidden number represents a different quantity than the visible one than when it represents the same quantity. Dr. Dehaene states that when the item is repeated twice, there is a reduction in activation (due to habituation), in both the left and right areas of the brain.

An important question that one might focus on is what neuroscience research can offer
educators in terms of setting realistic goals for education. Several seminars have introduced the
concept of the emotional brain and its relationship to education._
One response in regards to the goals of education included not only achieving cognitive literacy that
is, ensuring that children assimilate and master more knowledge and skills on traditional subjects like
arithmetic or grammar, but also acquire emotional competency.
_
Why this analysis is important is due to the existence of what Dr. David Servan–Schreiber
refers to as the “emotional brain”26, which is a set of brain structures deeply buried within the brain in
charge of processing emotions. As Dr. Masao Ito explained, we share these emotional structures with
other mammals. However, what distinguishes us from other mammals is that our cortex, which is
responsible for higher-order information processing like planning, action, attention, etc. is much more
developed. That development, however, should not overshadow the functional importance of the
emotional brain in our life and during child development and education.
One important function from the point of view of education is that “emotional valence”
enables the child to evaluate a given situation. Our emotional brain makes us more than “mere
computers processing information” because it allows us to deal with and to take into account
of this information enabling us to have, according to Dr. Ito, “Feelings or a sense for the beautiful.”
Located in the limbic system of the brain.
In its interplay with the cortex, the emotional brain also contributes to a “social judgment”, and what Dr. Servan-Schreiber called “success”. In the large sense, success can be defined by a set of loose but meaningful criteria such as the ability to define and engage in a proactive and rewarding professional career, life satisfaction, establishment of meaningful friendly and intimate relationships and lack of self-provoked life trauma. That is, the maturation process of becoming a responsible citizen.
A striking example of the critical contribution of the interaction between the emotional and the cognitive parts of the brain to social judgment is given by the story of a previously very successful and intelligent (IQ 130) accountant in Iowa, studied by Dr. Antonio Damasio. After removal of a part of his brain due to a lesion, the communication between the cognitive and the emotional parts of his brain were severed. Following the surgery he continued to have an IQ well above average for several years during which he was under medical observation. However, his social judgment became so impaired that he lost his job, failed to keep another job, got involved in a number of shadowy business ventures and eventually divorced his wife of 17 years only to remarry a wealthy woman considerably older than him whom he described as “an aging socialite.”
This example describes an extreme case of the total loss of social judgment. More importantly
to the process of education is the fact that this individual still had an IQ well above average the
operation. Dr. Servan-Schreiber used this story to highlight his concern with the use of IQ measures,
and “Their limited capacity to predict ‘social success’. The skills measured by IQ are not a sufficient
condition of social judgement”. He cited a study28 of Harvard students whose intelligence scores while
they were undergraduates were not predictive of what they would become 30 years later in terms of
salary, productivity, status, life satisfaction, friendship, and intimate relationships. A similar study
conducted in a suburb of Boston where all children were from families on welfare showed that their
emotional childhood abilities were much better predictors of adult success than their IQ scores.
The emotional brain not only has
connections to the cognitive parts of the
brain as seen in the above example but also
to the perceptive areas of the brain as well.
This part of the brain according to Dr. Kosslyn not only is engaged in perception but also with
mental imagery or visualization. Dr. Kosslyn reports that research has shown that it has much of the
phenomenology of perception in that many brain areas are activated during visual perception as in
imagery. Because of this, mental images have been found to have the same effect on the body, as do
27 What was removed was the orbito-frontal cortex, a part of the cortex situated between the two eye orbits and which
has extensive connections with the emotional brain, especially with the amygdala. For more information on this case
Including the areas in the occipital lobe that first register visual input from the eyes.
actual images. In Dr. Kosslyn’s research, subjects were asked to mentally visualize aversive stimuli,
such as a battered face or a burned body. This caused skin conductance and heart-rate changes,
especially in those individuals that reported ease in visualizing. This ability, he states, will differ
dramatically among individuals depending upon how easily they naturally imagine and retain visually
produced mental images.
In fact, Dr. Kosslyn showed that visualizing aversive stimuli activated certain brain areas more
than did visualizing neutral stimuli (such as a lamp or chair). Interestingly enough, one of the brain
areas activated was the anterior insula (within the limbic system), known to be involved in registering
autonomic or hormonal activity in the body. As Dr. Kosslyn points out, research is just beginning to
demonstrate that visualizing aversive events not only affect the body, but also appears to be registered
by the brain.
What these findings suggest is that people can alter their emotional state by forming specific
images that affect bodily functions including the endocrine and immune systems. Given these
findings,

Dr. Kosslyn posits that there are three possible applications of imagery to education:
_ Imagery as a memory aid. It is well known that objects are remembered better than words, so visualizing objects named by words makes the words more memorable;
_ Imagery as a hormone regulator. This, in turn can then affect cognitive abilities. For example, it is known that the level of the hormone testosterone affects spatial ability. It is known that winning a competition raises this level and losing a competition lowers it, thus, it is possible that visualizing such situations can also affect this hormone, which in turn would affect spatial abilities;
_ Imagery as used in psychotherapy. The techniques employed in this field can be used to overcome anxieties, such as math and reading phobias. In concluding, Dr. Kosslyn emphasized that the efficacy of imagery in modulating or changing an emotional state depends on the person’s ability to form and then use imagery. He was careful to add that it was not yet clear whether practice or training in imagery could make changes in self regulation and that further research was needed in this area.

John Nicholson 16-08-2009 10:13 AM

Yes We May See An Idea Spreading Threw The Brain But In Reality We Shall Never Know
 
WHAT IT IS memory formation in the brain

First direct visualization of memory formation in the brain
UCLA and McGill scientists image memory formation at the level of a single synapse in the brain
By
Mark Wheeler
| 6/22/2009 4:25:00 PM
FINDINGS:


UCLA and McGill University researchers have, for the first time, "photographed" a memory in the making. The study clarifies one of the ways in which connections in the brain between nerve cells, called synapses, can be changed with experience. The phenomenon is called "synaptic plasticity," and is the foundation for how we learn and remember. As we learn, the memories are stored in changes in the strength and/or number of synaptic connections between nerve cells in our brain. Long-lasting changes in synaptic connections are required for long-term memories. This is the first study to use fluorescent imaging to directly visualize protein synthesis - the making of a memory - at individual synapses during learning-related synaptic plasticity.

IMPACT:
Understanding how synapses can change with experience is critical to understanding behavioral plasticity and to understanding diseases in which learning and experience-dependent behaviors are impaired. Such diseases include mental retardation and Alzheimer's disease and anxiety and mood disorders. It also can elucidate potential strategies for improving normal cognition and behavioral plasticity.

JOURNAL:
The research appears in the June 19 edition of the journal Science.

AUTHORS:
Senior author Kelsey Martin, associate professor of psychiatry and biological chemistry; Dan Ohtan Wang, Sang Mok Kim, Yali Zhao, Hongik Hwang, Satoru K. Miura, all of UCLA; and Wayne S. Sossin, McGill University.

HOW:
The researchers used sensory and motor neurons from the sea slug Aplysia Californica that can form connections in culture. The neurons were stimulated with serotonin, which strengthens the synapses, and allowed them to detect new protein synthesis using a "translational reporter," a fluorescent protein that can be easily detected and tracked.

MORE:
This is the first study to directly visualize protein synthesis at individual synapses during a long-lasting form of synaptic plasticity. The studies revealed an exquisite level of control over the specificity of regulation of new protein synthesis. "While this was not really surprising to us given the complexity of information processing in the brain," said Martin, "visualizing the process of protein synthesis at individual synapses, and beginning to discern the elegance of its regulation, leaves us, as biologists, with a wonderful sense of awe."

FUNDING:
This study was funded by the National Institutes of Health, the W.M. Keck Foundation, and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. The authors report no conflict of interest.

John Nicholson 17-08-2009 11:35 AM

Illustrating the complexity of the human brain here is a piece of advanced technical research almost beyond our imagination as being possible to carry out.
My reasoning at using it here is to demonstrate the complexity of the human brain rather than the obvious advantages that will be gained from useful spin offs from this research





ScienceDaily (Nov. 10, 2008) — Scientists from Maastricht University have developed a method to look into the brain of a person and read out who has spoken to him or her and what was said. With the help of neuroimaging and data mining techniques the researchers mapped the brain activity associated with the recognition of speech sounds and voices.


In their Science article "'Who' is Saying 'What'? Brain-Based Decoding of Human Voice and Speech," the four authors demonstrate that speech sounds and voices can be identified by means of a unique 'neural fingerprint' in the listener's brain. In the future this new knowledge could be used to improve computer systems for automatic speech and speaker recognition.

Seven study subjects listened to three different speech sounds (the vowels /a/, /i/ and /u/), spoken by three different people, while their brain activity was mapped using neuroimaging techniques (fMRI). With the help of data mining methods the researchers developed an algorithm to translate this brain activity into unique patterns that determine the identity of a speech sound or a voice. The various acoustic characteristics of vocal cord vibrations (neural patterns) were found to determine the brain activity.

Just like real fingerprints, these neural patterns are both unique and specific: the neural fingerprint of a speech sound does not change if uttered by somebody else and a speaker's fingerprint remains the same, even if this person says something different.

Moreover, this study revealed that part of the complex sound-decoding process takes place in areas of the brain previously just associated with the early stages of sound processing. Existing neurocognitive models assume that processing sounds actively involves different regions of the brain according to a certain hierarchy: after a simple processing in the auditory cortex the more complex analysis (speech sounds into words) takes place in specialised regions of the brain. However, the findings from this study imply a less hierarchal processing of speech that is spread out more across the brain.

The research was partly funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO): Two of the four authors, Elia Formisano and Milene Bonte carried out their research with an NWO grant (Vidi and Veni). The data mining methods were developed during the PhD research of Federico De Martino (doctoral thesis defended at Maastricht University on 24 October 2008).

John Nicholson 17-08-2009 10:06 PM

The brains natural ability to link those natural realisation abilities to read
 
The brains natural ability to link those natural realisation abilities in order to improve abilities vital in learning to read

ScienceDaily (Mar. 25, 2009) — The sense of touch allows us to make a better connection between sight and hearing and therefore helps adults to learn to read. This is what has just been shown by the team of Édouard Gentaz, CNRS researcher at the Laboratoire de Psychologie et Neurocognition in Grenoble (CNRS/Université Pierre Mendès France de Grenoble/Université de Savoie).


These results, published March 16th in the journal PloS One, should improve learning methods, both for children learning to read and adults learning foreign languages.
To read words that are new to us, we have to learn to associate a visual stimulus (a letter, or grapheme) with its corresponding auditory stimulus (the sound, or phoneme). When visual stimuli can be explored both visually and by touch, adults learn arbitrary associations between auditory and visual stimuli more efficiently. The researchers reached this conclusion from an experiment on thirty French-speaking adults. They first compared two learning methods with which the adults had to learn 15 new visual stimuli, inspired by Japanese characters, and their 15 corresponding sounds (new auditory stimuli with no associated meaning). The two learning methods differed in the senses used to explore the visual stimuli. The first, "classic", method used only vision. The second, "multisensory", method used touch as well as vision for the perception of the visual stimuli. After the learning phase, the researchers measured the performances of each adult using different tests (1). They found that all the participants had acquired an above-chance ability to recognize the visual and auditory stimuli using the two methods.
The researchers then went on to test the participants by two other methods (2), this time to measure the capacity to learn associations between visual and auditory stimuli. The results showed that the subjects were capable of learning the associations with both learning methods, but that their performances were much better using the "multisensory" learning method. When the subjects were given the same tests a week after the learning phase, the results were the same.
These results support those already found by the same team, in work done with young children. The explication lies in the specific properties of the haptic sense (3) in the hands, which plays a "cementing" role between sight and hearing, favoring the connection between the senses. What goes on in the brain remains to be explored, as does the neuronal mechanism: the researchers plan to develop a protocol that will let them use fMRI (4) to identify the areas of the cortex that are activated during the "multisensory" learning process.
(1) The first two tests respectively measured the learning capacity for visual and auditory stimuli using recognition tests. In a visual test, a visual stimulus had to be recognized among 5 new visual stimuli. In an auditory test, the target had to be recognized among 5 new sounds.
(2) In the "visual-auditory" test, the subject was presented with a visual stimulus and had to recognize its corresponding sound among 5 other sounds. In the "auditory-visual" test, the opposite was done.
(3) Or tactile-kinesthetic. "Haptic" corresponds to the sense of touch, used to feel the letters.
(4) Functional magnetic resonance imaging: the application of magnetic resonance imagery to study the function of the brain.

John Nicholson 18-08-2009 08:22 AM

Our brain is more plastic than we might think."
 
This is at the very heart of my personal belief regarding human intelligence.
From very early consideration of intelligence I made a comparison, between an individual interested in horse racing, where we could then compare his knowledge with that of a professor of ancient history.
Who knows more the horse racing chap or the professor of ancient history, who would survive best on a desert island?
Obviously we have underestimated the potential of the human brain for years. My personal environment was on a five hundred acre farm in East Yorkshire, where my father kept my brother and myself very involved with what was going on and we were also mixing with adult farm workers and casual workers from Ireland, German and Italian prisoners of war, miners taking holidays, soldiers coming home on leave, an exiting environment for two young boys growing up in the early nineteen forties.


Training Can Increase Fluid Intelligence, Once Thought To Be Fixed At Birth
Plastic Brain Outsmarts Experts:
ScienceDaily (June 6, 2008) — Can human beings rev up their intelligence quotients, or are they stuck with IQs set by their genes at birth? Until recently, nature seemed to be the clear winner over nurture.
But new research, led by Swiss postdoctoral fellows Susanne M. Jaeggi and Martin Buschkuehl, working at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, suggests that at least one aspect of a person's IQ can be improved by training a certain type of memory.


Most IQ tests attempt to measure two types of intelligence--crystallized and fluid intelligence. Crystallized intelligence draws on existing skills, knowledge and experiences to solve problems by accessing information from long-term memory.
Fluid intelligence, on the other hand, draws on the ability to understand relationships between various concepts, independent of any previous knowledge or skills, to solve new problems. The research shows that this part of intelligence can be improved through memory training.

"When it comes to improving intelligence, many researchers have thought it was not possible," says Jaeggi. "Our findings clearly show this is not the case. Our brain is more plastic than we might think."
Jaeggi, Buschkuehl and Walter Perrig from Bern University, Switzerland, along with Jon Jonides, their National Science Foundation-supported colleague from the University of Michigan, reasoned that just as crystallized intelligence relies on long-term memory, fluid intelligence relies on short-term memory, or "working memory," as it is more accurately called. This is the same type of memory people use to remember a phone number or an e-mail address for a short time, but beyond that, working memory refers to the ability to both manipulate and use information briefly stored in the mind in the face of distraction.
Researchers gathered four groups of volunteers and trained their working memories using a complex training task called "dual n-back training," which presented both auditory and visual cues that participants had to temporarily store and recall.
Participants received the training during a half hour session held once a day for either eight, 12, 17 or 19 days. For each of these training periods, researchers tested participants' gains in fluid intelligence. They compared the results against those of control groups to be sure the volunteers actually improved their fluid intelligence, not merely their test-taking skills.
The results were surprising. While the control groups made gains, presumably because they had practice with the fluid intelligence tests, the trained groups improved considerably more than the control groups. Further, the longer the participants trained, the larger were their intelligence gains.
"Our findings clearly show that training on certain memory tasks transfer to fluid intelligence," says Jaeggi. "We also find that individuals with lower fluid intelligence scores at pre-test could profit from the training."
The results are significant because improved fluid intelligence scores could translate into improved general intelligence as measured by IQ tests. General intelligence is a key to determining life outcomes such as academic success, job performance and occupational advancement.
Researchers also surmise that this same type of memory training may help children with developmental problems and older adults who face memory decline. But, that remains to be seen, because the test results are based on assessments of young, healthy adult participants.
"Even though it currently appears very hard to improve these conditions, there might be some memory training related to intelligence that actually helps," says Jaeggi. "The saying 'use it or lose it' is probably appropriate here."
Since it is not known whether the improvements in fluid intelligence last after the training stops, researchers currently are measuring long-term fluid intelligence gains with both laboratory testing and long-term field work. Researchers say it will be some time before a complete data set is available to draw any conclusions.
University of Bern professor Walter J. Perrig also co-authors this study along with University of Michigan professor John Jonides. The Swiss National Science Foundation funds Jaeggi and Buschkuehl's visiting scholar status.
_________________________ _______________
Adapted from materials provided by National Science Foundation.
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John Nicholson 09-09-2009 10:01 PM

Humans might not be walking the face of the Earth were it not for the ancient fusing of two prokaryotes — tiny life forms that do not have a cellular nucleus. UCLA molecular biologist James A. Lake reports important new insights about prokaryotes and the evolution of life in the Aug. 20 advance online edition of the journal Nature.

Endosymbiosis refers to a cell living within another cell. If the cells live together long enough, they will exchange genes; they merge but often keep their own cell membranes and sometimes their own genomes.

Lake has discovered the first exclusively prokaryote endosymbiosis. All other known endosymbioses have involved a eukaryote — a cell that contains a nucleus. Eukaryotes are found in all multicellular forms of life, including humans, animals and plants.

"This relationship resulted in a totally different type of life on Earth," said Lake, a UCLA distinguished professor of molecular, cell and developmental biology and of human genetics. "We thought eukaryotes always needed to be present to do it, but we were wrong."

In the Nature paper, Lake reports that two groups of prokaryotes — actinobacteria and clostridia — came together and produced "double-membrane" prokaryotes.

"Higher life would not have happened without this event," Lake said. "These are very important organisms. At the time these two early prokaryotes were evolving, there was no oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere. Humans could not live. No oxygen-breathing organisms could live."

The oxygen on the Earth is the result of a subgroup of these double-membrane prokaryotes, Lake said. This subgroup, the cyanobacteria, used the sun's energy to produce oxygen through photosynthesis. They have been tremendously productive, pumping oxygen into the atmosphere; we could not breathe without them. In addition, the double-membrane prokaryotic fusion supplied the mitochondria that are present in every human cell, he said.

"This work is a major advance in our understanding of how a group of organisms came to be that learned to harness the sun and then effected the greatest environmental change the Earth has ever seen, in this case with beneficial results," said Carl Pilcher, director of the NASA Astrobiology Institute, headquartered at the NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, Calif., which co-funded the study with the National Science Foundation.

"Along came these organisms — the double-membrane prokaryotes — that could use sunlight," Lake said. "They captured this vast energy resource. They were so successful that they have more genetic diversity in them than all other prokaryotes.

"We have a flow of genes from two different organisms, clostridia and actinobacteria, together," he said. "Because the group into which they are flowing has two membranes, we hypothesize that that was an endosymbiosis that resulted in a double membrane. It looks as if a single-membrane organism has engulfed another. The genomes are telling us that the double-membrane prokaryotes combine sets of genes from the two different organisms."

For this study, Lake has looked back more than 2.5 billion years. He conducted an analysis of the genomics of the five groups of prokaryotes.

Lake is interested in learning how every organism is related.

"We all are interested in our ancestors," he said. "A friend at UC Berkeley, Alan Wilson, was the first person to collect DNA from large numbers of people around the world. He showed that we are all related to a woman who lived in Africa 200,000 years ago. Some in the media called her Eve. He called her the Lucky Mother, the mother of us all.
"In our field, we have enormous amounts of data but cannot make sense of it all. Endosymbiosis allows us to start to understanding things; it tells us that many genes are exchanged.

"We have been overlooking how important cooperation is," Lake said. "If two prokaryotes get together, they can change the world. They restructured the atmosphere of the Earth. It's a message that evolution is giving us: Cooperation is a way to get ahead."

Actinobacteria have an unusual DNA composition, with a very high amount of "G" and "C" nucleotides — chemicals whose patterns carry the data required for constructing proteins. Nucleotides are designated by the letters G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine); the sequence of nucleotides serves as a chemical code.

Some actinobacteria are pathogens, including ones that cause tuberculosis and leprosy. Some clostridia can photosynthesize, which no other single-membrane prokaryote does. Photosynthesis may have been developed in clostridia.

Double-membrane prokaryotes include the pathogens that cause ulcers, as well as the organisms that led to the creation of the chloroplasts that are in all green plants and which make plant growth possible.

John Nicholson 09-09-2009 10:08 PM

Humans might not be walking the face of the Earth were it not for the ancient fusing of two prokaryotes — tiny life forms that do not have a cellular nucleus. UCLA molecular biologist James A. Lake reports important new insights about prokaryotes and the evolution of life in the Aug. 20 advance online edition of the journal Nature.

Endosymbiosis refers to a cell living within another cell. If the cells live together long enough, they will exchange genes; they merge but often keep their own cell membranes and sometimes their own genomes.

Lake has discovered the first exclusively prokaryote endosymbiosis. All other known endosymbioses have involved a eukaryote — a cell that contains a nucleus. Eukaryotes are found in all multicellular forms of life, including humans, animals and plants.

"This relationship resulted in a totally different type of life on Earth," said Lake, a UCLA distinguished professor of molecular, cell and developmental biology and of human genetics. "We thought eukaryotes always needed to be present to do it, but we were wrong."

In the Nature paper, Lake reports that two groups of prokaryotes — actinobacteria and clostridia — came together and produced "double-membrane" prokaryotes.

"Higher life would not have happened without this event," Lake said. "These are very important organisms. At the time these two early prokaryotes were evolving, there was no oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere. Humans could not live. No oxygen-breathing organisms could live."

The oxygen on the Earth is the result of a subgroup of these double-membrane prokaryotes, Lake said. This subgroup, the cyanobacteria, used the sun's energy to produce oxygen through photosynthesis. They have been tremendously productive, pumping oxygen into the atmosphere; we could not breathe without them. In addition, the double-membrane prokaryotic fusion supplied the mitochondria that are present in every human cell, he said.

"This work is a major advance in our understanding of how a group of organisms came to be that learned to harness the sun and then effected the greatest environmental change the Earth has ever seen, in this case with beneficial results," said Carl Pilcher, director of the NASA Astrobiology Institute, headquartered at the NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, Calif., which co-funded the study with the National Science Foundation.

"Along came these organisms — the double-membrane prokaryotes — that could use sunlight," Lake said. "They captured this vast energy resource. They were so successful that they have more genetic diversity in them than all other prokaryotes.

"We have a flow of genes from two different organisms, clostridia and actinobacteria, together," he said. "Because the group into which they are flowing has two membranes, we hypothesize that that was an endosymbiosis that resulted in a double membrane. It looks as if a single-membrane organism has engulfed another. The genomes are telling us that the double-membrane prokaryotes combine sets of genes from the two different organisms."

For this study, Lake has looked back more than 2.5 billion years. He conducted an analysis of the genomics of the five groups of prokaryotes.

Lake is interested in learning how every organism is related.

"We all are interested in our ancestors," he said. "A friend at UC Berkeley, Alan Wilson, was the first person to collect DNA from large numbers of people around the world. He showed that we are all related to a woman who lived in Africa 200,000 years ago. Some in the media called her Eve. He called her the Lucky Mother, the mother of us all.
"In our field, we have enormous amounts of data but cannot make sense of it all. Endosymbiosis allows us to start to understanding things; it tells us that many genes are exchanged.

"We have been overlooking how important cooperation is," Lake said. "If two prokaryotes get together, they can change the world. They restructured the atmosphere of the Earth. It's a message that evolution is giving us: Cooperation is a way to get ahead."

Actinobacteria have an unusual DNA composition, with a very high amount of "G" and "C" nucleotides — chemicals whose patterns carry the data required for constructing proteins. Nucleotides are designated by the letters G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine); the sequence of nucleotides serves as a chemical code.

Some actinobacteria are pathogens, including ones that cause tuberculosis and leprosy. Some clostridia can photosynthesize, which no other single-membrane prokaryote does. Photosynthesis may have been developed in clostridia.

Double-membrane prokaryotes include the pathogens that cause ulcers, as well as the organisms that led to the creation of the chloroplasts that are in all green plants and which make plant growth possible.

John Nicholson 09-09-2009 10:13 PM

An Explanation Of The Possibilities Within The Working Brain.
For myself, no attempt to explain my personal interest in the human brain, can be given without the explanation, as to just how my fanatical interest in it came about.
My research began over thirteen years ago. I was watching a television report from Hong Kong. Chinese children of four to five years of age were shouting out answers to a master writing sums across the top of a blackboard, just as quickly has he wrote the maths questions, they shouted out the answer, the whole class were totally absorbed with it.

All the children were copying the sums, all the children were taking part in this maths lesson, it did not matter whether they had worked out the answer or not. Individually they were all learning the answers any way. Most of them appeared to me to be able to answer all the questions quite easily.
I was dramatically shocked to see these very young Chinese children, obviously answering arithmetic questions so accurately and so quickly. My first instinct was that these children were fifty points ahead of our British children of the same age, in IQ.
I simply could not believe what I was seeing. Then I had some slight relief as to their advantage, they were copying the sums on to a Chinese Abacus a Sour pan a traditional Chinese counting frame. The Chinese Abacus has seven bobbins on each column, separated by a dividing bar beneath the top two bobbins representing five in each bobbin and the five bobbins below representing single digits of the appropriate column below. For example the right hand column represents one to five the adjacent column would be ten twenty and so on. the bobbins below the bar represent the numbers one to five, they are counted by pushing them up to the bar, counting one to five then exchanged for one bobbin above the bar pushing up a single bobbin for six and so on. When all the bobbins are counted towards the centre of the Abacus they represent number 15. The Chinese Abacus is very useful simply because it can be rearranged to show up ten or fifteen on each of the columns.
The Japanese Abacus represents 10 when one pushes up a counter on second column left of the right hand starting point, the Japanese Soroban has one counter representing the number five, on top of the bar, with four counters underneath the bar, each column can represent up to nine, the modern Japanese Abacus a Soroban is manufactured with older children and adults in mind, one small accidental shake effectively wipes out any figure.
I want to go no farther than this simple explanation at this moment, other than to say that the modern Japanese Abacus is unsuitable for children of a very early age, one simple shake will dislodge any representation of number. The older and more simply manufactured Chinese Abacus is more useful for young children as a starting point in early arithmetic.
Any Abacus can be explained quite easily to a five-year-old child in a one day tutorial, but to consolidate that knowledge, regular lessons need to be continued until the child is perfect in mental arithmetic, equivalent to the maths that has been demonstrated on the abacus.
My real shock came when the master collected all the children's individual Abacus leaving them without any physical ability to put pen on paper or use an Abacus. From that point on children followed the sums being written on the blackboard, they were still able to shout out the answers, then my real shock occurred, all the children were able to answer quickly and accurately their individual understanding of numbers just as perfect as their individual understanding of process was also perfect.
My instantaneous realisation was that every child in the class had learnt to visualise all the arithmetic they were doing, but not only that, to be so accurate mentally at such an early age meant that they were perfect in understanding the meaning of every number.
The next day I bought an Abacus not Chinese or Japanese Abacus but a simple counting frame with five columns each column containing ten counters after less than one hour's tuition my four-year-old daughter was able to divide the counters in half, and read the answer 55555, she was also able to subtract and add any other numbers.
I now realise those early arithmetic abilities need to be reinforced by regularly practise from simple counting, to adding and subtracting anything the Abacus is capable of, alongside demonstrations of times tables and any clear examples of division the abacus is capable of showing. Short regular sessions are preferred if arithmetic is ever to become an instantaneous realisation built into the Childs mentality, very much in the same manner as we are able to teach someone how to drive a car in one day by using short-term memory, it is vital to reinforce all those initial memories for a number of days in order to transfer those short term memories into long term memory so building automatic ability in driving a car. Virtually every normal adult can be trained to drive a car, so can every normal child of four years of age, learn to count and understand numbers to one hundred and sometimes more.

John Nicholson 09-09-2009 10:24 PM

The ability built when you are using an Abacus, is exactly like driving a car, you may be able to drive it in one day with a good tutor, but you must build into your mind many automatic abilities to be able to do it for the rest of your you may keep yourself and others safe for a lifetime. The results of not being taught to drive a car properly are clear for all to see. One failure in concentration can result in tragedy in some circumstances.
These Chinese children were being taught perfectly to comprehend the value of numbers and the manner in which we manipulate numbers in order to calculate quickly and accurately.
So in less than ten minutes I saw very young Chinese children performing mental arithmetic way beyond the capabilities of any average European child, also understanding the manner in which they were being taught the basic principles of early arithmetic, “from this I have developed a near perfect early maths training program which can be easily carried out by any parent and which is also suitable, for standard international use anywhere in the world.
Thirteen years of reading researching and reasoning have given me some answers to the question that I have consistently asked myself after that ten minute realisation.

“HOW ON EARTH DO WE HUMAN BEINGS DO ALL THE WONDERFUL THINGS WE ARE ABLE TO DO,”

I used Kipling’s five friends, What? When? Why? Where? And How? to assist me, also the words of many others. Neurological research is still in its infancy, many misleading conclusions are being drawn up consistently but not every conclusion is wrong.
(The impossibility of reading someone’s visual thinking by recording areas of stimulation within the brain is not acceptable to me.)
Clearly the human mind works in an harmonious manner, with conscious and unconscious ideas being formulated utilizing all areas of reasoning ability in harmony. In danger the mind takes automatic action without regard to a lengthy reasoning period. I find this reasonable evidence to prove harmonious brain working, just as important as the translation from words into visual ideas, producing the visual understanding and memory from where we draw down on our unconscious ability to instantaneously and without apparent aforethought, produce language giving explanation or making enquiry at will.
I feel that I have learnt as much and more about the brain by reading and considering philosophy then I have learnt from reading and considering the very latest reports and initial conclusions from the leading neurological research teams of Today.
We are obviously at the leading edge of neurological research, but we have barely begun, to understand the possibilities of the human brain. The biggest problem we have is to reconcile the instantaneous abilities we all quite naturally posses, for instance normal speech created by the deeper or whole mind, giving the very best reasoning we are capable of, without in depth conscious thought , with the unrealisable concept of independent subconscious reasoning ability. These are inbuilt automatic skills developed over thousands of years of evolutionary change most likely connected with an acute sixth sense giving us a mental preparation of danger; our minds are consistently on subconscious guard duty.
Any hesitation in speech may be regarded as a special attempt to influence the listener or listeners clearly alerting the sixth sense to probable inconsistencies.
Concentration and perfection
Every one of us thinks is that we are very good at thinking, but we have little comprehension of just how good we are at thinking, it is simply because the majority of our thinking takes place quite independently from our conscious thinking abilities. We are totally unaware of the majority of our thinking processes simply because it would interfere with our concentration, the use of words are vital in giving explanation when we are considering concepts we have never considered before. How can we consider something when we do not know anything about it, we have simply no natural understanding of just how our minds work.
The Conscious area of your working brain, the area we know most about, is simply the smallest part of your working brain, That area is unconsciously utilising every area of your brain, it is being supplied by many areas of your brain working collectively to provide the conscious area of your mind with the specific information that is required to reason with, so before we talk about teaching, or learn anything at all about teaching, we have to have some understanding of just how our own brain works, teaching and learning are the most natural human habits we all posses, but without the automatic abilities we posses we would have no language ability, limited memory, and very little hope of surviving as a species on our planet, language is perfectly natural to us, I am using language to give you explanations of human abilities none of us could be ever aware of without deep philosophical thought or scientific exploration, or simply being told about those natural human abilities that we all poses, in the simplest and most precise use of words I can manage to convey these ideas in.
It is virtually impossible to identify at the moment child or an adult knows something perfectly and permanently. The very best physical awareness of automatic memory building, which we can only acquire naturally, is the ability we all have, to identify the sound of our friends and those familiar to us, instantly and accurately when we talk to them on the telephone.
We cannot teach anyone to recognise the individual sound of someone’s voice, this is clearly a perfect ability the mind is capable of independently. Repetition and familiarity build near perfect awareness.
Having given a perfect example of near perfection being built quite naturally into human memory, simply through regular association, from that proposition comes the realisation, that we can all become familiar with anything, over time, we are now ready to examine education in detail.
In what manner of learning are we most generally faced with?

John Nicholson 09-09-2009 10:37 PM

Seeing, hearing and doing.” Learning is as natural to a human as breathing.


We copy sound to learn our natural language and copy behaviour to build the abilities necessary for survival. These survival skills were originally developed individually and in groups. Our modern human requirements are vastly different, but we still have only one mode of human behaviour. Teaching by speech or example, learning by listening reading and watching but finally building our own understanding through reason and consideration of what see hear and think.
When we are considering the human mind, we are considering something unique. Within each mind, are individual memories, containing all the unique information regarding our personal lives and experiences, all the knowledge gained from experience, reading and reasoning, and the emotional package individually created from the unique lifestyle each and every one of us lives. However we try, we can never replicate our individual mind. Individually each and every one of us is physically different, but within the content of our mind brought about by our unique experience within our individual lives, it is inevitable that we are even more unique mentally then we are on the outside physically.
Our individual human capabilities came about quite naturally, let us consider the evolution of our species, looking at all the different situations animals have evolved into, using a broad meaning of the word animal, insects, fish, reptiles, rodents every species of bird all four-legged animals, all species once they are perfected are regarded as products of their environment. Although most four legged animals and mammals can make sounds we humans are the only ones that can speak. Through observation the broad meaning of those animal sounds can only be regarded as expressions of love contentment or fear. This makes us, a unique species, the only species on the planet to be able to share our thinking; we share massive abilities within memory, natural perfection within sound recognition being only one of many brain facilities we are born totally unaware of.
We need to consider our extended period of human development, where most scientists consider that man, as he is mentally and physically cast as of today, came about some 50,000 years ago after some millions of years of initial animal development obviously we were originally a four-legged creature that developed into a walking on two legs sort of person or monkey , but we turned out to be the smartest monkey of all, the only monkey to develop language ability and everything that means to us.
When we look backwards 50,000 years most probably we were not as perfected as we are today but we were using language developing tools and living a communal existence. Let us consider the number of generations that have gone into those last fifty thousand years, using the decimal system to calculate the number of generations considering five generations each hundred years brings us to 50,000 generations every 10,000 years.
One quarter of a million pairs of ancestors within our last 50 thousand years, but even more important, are the millions of evolutionary years before that, where our human species was developing into modern man, clearly developing speech a long time before, the 50,000 years old nearly perfected man, in our hunter gatherer circumstances. Our individual tribal existence and the physical environment we lived in, is responsible for creating the looks and characteristics we humans have, but speech ability is the one characteristic we all possess in common, besides the two, of most things and the perfected brain developed in order to manage our difficult circumstances, existing between animals that were stronger, faster and more savage, than we the human species, are by nature.
Only our species developed language and the highly developed brain facilities we rely on to share knowledge, where every human being in normal health is the possessor of a powerful human brain. Consider just how widely spread our highly developed brain is and the generations of development that went into it, I consider the high probability that every one of us has been born with a near perfect brain.
Considering the lengthy development of our human species, it is nearly impossible for us to be born without a near perfect brain, with that in mind we have to consider just why the full potential of the majority of those brains are never realised.
WHAT IS THE FULL POTENTIAL OF THE HUMAN BRAIN

Investigating the potential of the human brain, obviously with 6 billion of us inhabiting the planet, modern man as a species needs to reorganise the manner in which we may continue to inhabit the planet.
OUR HUMAN STRUGGLE WITH LIMITED KNOWLEDGE
Within this review of our human brain, we are consistently learning more as individuals, or within the groups that we naturally associate ourselves with. Most probably as individuals we belong to many different groups, first of all there is the country that we reside in, then our original nationality, or maybe the two nationalities that we may belong to. The farmer, the teacher, the doctor, the candlestick maker, we belong quite naturally to many different groups. Much personal influence is exerted also quite naturally. Personally one of the most important things I was ever told, an essential life tool, was told to me by a farm worker, that “I needed to listen to everyone, everyone knows something that you do not know” following on from my grammar school education I had at last learn something useful. Something which every one of us needs to be aware of, we are most unlikely to be right about anything until we have given it a large amount of thinking time. The picture of this early lesson on a summer's day fifty three years ago, has never left my mind, only a few words, but such an important concept. Our visual memory divides directly in to two distinct categories, visual memories of vital importance which we can remember forever, and memories in a visual manner which we can recall when we see them again, or sometimes after much thinking and associated recollection. At the back of my own mind, I feel it may be probable that in normal health that we may all have near perfect visual memory. For my own mental consideration I think my visual memories are in two categories, first memories which I use regularly I consider as positive, and the memories that I recall when I see them again as negative pictures, recallable on deep reflection or when the visual memory is renewed.
This natural recollection ability, I consider to be an evolutionary necessity built in to prevent us overloading our working memory.

John Nicholson 10-09-2009 01:05 AM

When we are considering the vital aspects of early learning, it is vital that we consider the natural abilities we all have. Creating an exciting memory is a major part of early learning. Using the thumbs up and identifying them as Mr five and Mr six is a perfection.

Only by extreme measures, utilising our compound intelligence resources can we hope to survive So science and the application of science is our natural way forward, it is only one hundred years since we started to fly, but just look at what we have accomplished by utilising science and technology.

It is also only one hundred years since Maria Montessori discovered many vital facts about the human brain and about the advanced possibilities of human learning capabilities. As regards the application of science within education itself we are not even able to match the results achieved by Maria Montessori over one hundred years ago, as a general rule within our state schools. The lack of sustainable procedures within education prevents the expansion of science generally. This has to be the time of science to rule within education procedure itself.

Let us look at knowledge transfer in today's world, visual awareness of everything happening in the world is instantly available to everyone in the world through a combination of television and computers, but our children are finding reading and arithmetic are more difficult to learn then ever previously in the developed world, with the exception of the Asian countries we are missing out on early educational possibilities simply because we unaware of our human mental capabilities and the perfection of our human brain.

Yes we have the ability to teach ourselves our natural language.

No we do not have the ability to teach ourselves to read, quickly and efficiently or to understand the language of mathematics at an early age.
Looking at the perfection of the human brain with its evolutionary ability to do anything we ask of it, provided we understand it at least with the clarity of Maria Montessori 100 years ago.

Taking a closer look at the human brain I have never felt that the mind of a newborn can be stated any more clearly than the words of John Lock describing the mind of a baby as a blank page.

I see all the facilities to manage our bodies and minds are already in place but the child cannot see and maybe not even hear within the womb. The necessity is, for the Childs senses to play their part immediately in learning about the world they are born into. Informal teaching starts initially with the natural teaching abilities that most mothers possess.


MY SIMPLE PROCEDURES WILL ENSURE PERFECTION IN EARLY ARITHMETIC AND BUILDING THE NEURAL PATHWAYS THAT RESULT FROM READING NUMBERS AT SUCH AN EARLY AGE PROVIDED WE ADOPT A STANDARD SYSTEM INTERNATIONALLY

UTILISING A WRITTEN IN WORDS ABACUS PROVIDES FAMILIARITY WITH NUMBERS DESCRIBED IN ANY WRITTEN LANGUAGE READING THOSE WORDS STIMULATES THE CHILDS NEURAL PATHWAYS

PERFECTION IN CONNECTING LETTER SOUNDS AND SYMBOL RECOGNITION TOGETHER ARE BEST TAUGHT EARLY BY THE CHILDS PARENTS OR SPECIALIST EARLY LEARNING CENTRES IN COMBINATION WITH THE PARENTS

Some hundreds of thousands of generations have ensured perfection in building powerful human brains. Only perfected teaching systems will enable ever child to reach their full potential in reading and mathematics which need to become automatic abilities in every human brain.

John Nicholson 11-09-2009 10:11 AM

I must be getting closer to an understanding.

this something I found on the net after I wrote the above stuff

-------------- http://farmingforum.co.uk/forums/sho...9#p ost243919


I posted it onto a farming website just to clear the file for myself but left it there because the intellectuals are on my heals.




---------------:dazed: ------------------:dazed: -----------------:dazed:

John Nicholson 19-09-2009 10:14 AM

A HISTORY LESSON AND AN ASSUMPTION.

Humans might not be walking the face of the Earth were it not for the ancient fusing of two prokaryotes — tiny life forms that do not have a cellular nucleus. UCLA molecular biologist James A. Lake reports important new insights about prokaryotes and the evolution of life in the Aug. 20 advance online edition of the journal Nature.

Endosymbiosis refers to a cell living within another cell. If the cells live together long enough, they will exchange genes; they merge but often keep their own cell membranes and sometimes their own genomes.

Lake has discovered the first exclusively prokaryote endosymbiosis. All other known endosymbioses have involved a eukaryote — a cell that contains a nucleus. Eukaryotes are found in all multicellular forms of life, including humans, animals and plants.

"This relationship resulted in a totally different type of life on Earth," said Lake, a UCLA distinguished professor of molecular, cell and developmental biology and of human genetics. "We thought eukaryotes always needed to be present to do it, but we were wrong."

In the Nature paper, Lake reports that two groups of prokaryotes — actinobacteria and clostridia — came together and produced "double-membrane" prokaryotes.

"Higher life would not have happened without this event," Lake said. "These are very important organisms. At the time these two early prokaryotes were evolving, there was no oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere. Humans could not live. No oxygen-breathing organisms could live."

The oxygen on the Earth is the result of a subgroup of these double-membrane prokaryotes, Lake said. This subgroup, the cyanobacteria, used the sun's energy to produce oxygen through photosynthesis. They have been tremendously productive, pumping oxygen into the atmosphere; we could not breathe without them. In addition, the double-membrane prokaryotic fusion supplied the mitochondria that are present in every human cell, he said.

"This work is a major advance in our understanding of how a group of organisms came to be that learned to harness the sun and then effected the greatest environmental change the Earth has ever seen, in this case with beneficial results," said Carl Pilcher, director of the NASA Astrobiology Institute, headquartered at the NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, Calif., which co-funded the study with the National Science Foundation.

"Along came these organisms — the double-membrane prokaryotes — that could use sunlight," Lake said. "They captured this vast energy resource. They were so successful that they have more genetic diversity in them than all other prokaryotes.

"We have a flow of genes from two different organisms, clostridia and actinobacteria, together," he said. "Because the group into which they are flowing has two membranes, we hypothesize that that was an endosymbiosis that resulted in a double membrane. It looks as if a single-membrane organism has engulfed another. The genomes are telling us that the double-membrane prokaryotes combine sets of genes from the two different organisms."

For this study, Lake has looked back more than 2.5 billion years. He conducted an analysis of the genomics of the five groups of prokaryotes.

Lake is interested in learning how every organism is related.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --
A VITAL PASSAGE

"WE ALL ARE INTERESTED IN OUR ANCESTORS," HE SAID. "A FRIEND AT UC BERKELEY, ALAN WILSON, WAS THE FIRST PERSON TO COLLECT DNA FROM LARGE NUMBERS OF PEOPLE AROUND THE WORLD. HE SHOWED THAT WE ARE ALL RELATED TO A WOMAN WHO LIVED IN AFRICA 200,000 YEARS AGO. SOME IN THE MEDIA CALLED HER EVE. HE CALLED HER THE LUCKY MOTHER, THE MOTHER OF US ALL.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

"In our field, we have enormous amounts of data but cannot make sense of it all. Endosymbiosis allows us to start to understanding things; it tells us that many genes are exchanged.

"We have been overlooking how important cooperation is," Lake said. "If two prokaryotes get together, they can change the world. They restructured the atmosphere of the Earth. It's a message that evolution is giving us: Cooperation is a way to get ahead."

Actinobacteria have an unusual DNA composition, with a very high amount of "G" and "C" nucleotides — chemicals whose patterns carry the data required for constructing proteins. Nucleotides are designated by the letters G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine); the sequence of nucleotides serves as a chemical code.

Some actinobacteria are pathogens, including ones that cause tuberculosis and leprosy. Some clostridia can photosynthesize, which no other single-membrane prokaryote does. Photosynthesis may have been developed in clostridia.

Double-membrane prokaryotes include the pathogens that cause ulcers, as well as the organisms that led to the creation of the chloroplasts that are in all green plants and which make plant growth possible.

{CONSIDER THAT WE MUST HAVE AN AVERAGE OF FIVE GENERATIONS EVERY HUNDRED YEARS (NO BIRTH CONTROL) TWO HUNDRED THOUSAND YEARS TIMES FIVE GIVES US ONE MILLION GENERATIONS. I READ THAT, AS RESULTING IN EVERY HUMAN CHILD BORN IN NORMAL HEALTH AS HAVING OUR SPECIES POWERFUL HUMAN BRAIN.
WHAT IS DIFFERENT ABOUT EVERY ONE OF US, APART FROM THE OBVIOUS PHYSICAL DIFFERENCES HAS TO BE OUR PERSONAL EXPERIENCE. GIVEN THAT WE ARE CAPABLE OF DOING EVERYTHING WE SEE OTHERS DOING, SHOULD WE HAVE THEIR DETERMINATION AND EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND WHAT LIMITS HAVE WE ON WHAT WE CAN ACHIEVE.
MY BELIEF IS THAT GIVEN A BROAD CONCENTRATED EARLY EDUCATION STARTING WITH COUNTING AND READING PERFECTION, BEING TAUGHT TO PLAY CHESS, TABLE TENNIS, PLAYING THE PIANO, LEARNING TO TYPE, TAUGHT TO DRAW AND PAINT AND WRITE WELL, WE CAN LOOK FORWARDS TO BEING TAUGHT CONSISTENTLY THROUGHOUT OUR LIVES WITHOUT SPENDING YEARS IN SCHOOLS AND UNIVERSITIES SIMPLY BY LEARNING THE PRACTICAL SKILLS WE ALL NEED TO SURVIVE WITH. GROWING AND COOKING OUR OWN FOOD, DESIGNING AND BUILDING OUR OWN HOUSES, DOING EVER PRACTICAL THING WE CAN DO FOR OURSELVES. LEARNING SIMPLY BY DOING SOMETHING, SITUATIONS SIMILAR TO HOW EVERY PRACTICAL FARMER FINALLY LEARNS HIS OR HER TRADE. JN
}

John Nicholson 08-10-2009 11:54 PM

“ The brain expects the environment to influence its evolving circuitry,”
“ These circuits are literally shaped by personal experience.”
J

J P Shonkoff, M D Professor of Child Health and Development and director of the Centre on the Developing Child at
Harvard University.


The developing brain

At the time of birth, the architecture of the human brain is underdeveloped. The brain, as it grows, is constantly wiring and refining the connections among its trillions of nerve cells and the synapses through which messages are sent throughout the brain. In early childhood, the brain is genetically programmed to develop many more synapses than it will ever use, with different circuits being formed in different areas of the brain at different times. This brain circuitry is influenced by a blend of genetics and experience.“The brain expects the environment to influence its evolving circuitry,” says Shonkoff. “These circuits are literally shaped by personal experience.” This process of circuit building results in what some scientists call biological embedding; that is, experience gets built into our bodies and has physiological effects on the brain as well as other developing organ systems. Language interaction between parents and children create stronger brain circuits. Likewise, sound early arithmetic and reading ability are essential for the healthy development of brain circuitry.

John Nicholson 22-10-2009 09:14 PM

Kinesthetic learning is a teaching and learning style
 
Kinesthetic learning is a teaching and learning style in which learning takes place by the student actually carrying out a physical activity, rather than listening to a lecture or merely watching a demonstration. Some people are visual learners, some kinesthetic learners, and some are auditory learners. Students associated with this predominant learning style are thought to be natural discovery learners; they have realizations through doing, as opposed to having thought first before initiating action. The evidence on kinesthetic learners benefiting from specialized instruction or targeted materials appears mixed, because the diagnosis of learning preference is itself problematic.

THIS IS OBVIOUSLY PULLED STRAIT FROM WIKA WHATS IT.

because the diagnosis of learning preference is itself problematic.

SO WE ARE THINKING ABOUT OUR OR A CHILDS LEARNING STYLE IS THIS WAY OR THAT WAY

ARE WE TO BE LOCKED INTO A MYTH CREATED BY HOWARD GARDINER YEARS AGO. GARDNERS WORK WAS GROUND BREAKING HE IDENTIFIED THE DIFFERENT MANNERS OF LEARNING WE ALL NATURALLY USE.

BUT WHEN WE ARE ONLY THREE FOUR FIVE AND SIX KINISTHETIC LEARNING IS KING

AND OF COURSE COMMON SENSE SAYS WHERE EVER WE ARE AND WHATEVER WE ARE TRYING TO UNDERSTAND WE ARE USING EVERY SENSE WE HAVE IN OUR VERY PERSONABLE BEST COMBINATION OF THE WORLDS MOST POWEFUL SPECIES BRAIN.
However researchers on both sides of the debate agree that there is data showing "that a teaching strategy based on a ‘programmed learning sequence’ and designed to favour visually- and tactilely-oriented students increased attainment for all students in the experimental group." Other studies also show that mixed modality presentations, for instance using both auditory and visual techniques, improve results for subjects across the board.[1]
Kinesthetic learning is when someone learns things from doing or being part of them. They make up about 15% of the population and struggle to pick things up by reading/ listening to things. Many people mistake themselves for kinesthetic/ tactile learners because they have not used the full variety of learning options, which means they cannot find the right learning state for them. The kinesthetic learner usually does well in things such as chemistry experiments, sporting activities, and acting. They also may listen to music while learning or studying. It is common for kinesthetic learners to focus on two different things at the same time. They will remember things by going back in their minds to what their body was doing. They also have very high hand-eye coordination and very quick receptors. They use phrases such as "I can see myself doing that" and "It's starting to come alive".

John Nicholson 22-10-2009 11:15 PM

In Frames of Mind, Howard Gardner presents the theory that there is no general "intelligence" of the kind purported to be measured by IQ tests. Instead, the human mind is organized around several distinct functional capacities, which he calls "intelligences." Using an elaborate set of criteria, he identifies the seven intelligences listed in Table 1. Though these intelligences overlap with the two-brain theory that distinguishes the functions of left and right hemispheres, Gardner sets aside the two-brain model in order to investigate thinking at a deeper level of complexity. Each intelligence combines elements that may have evolved separately. Though certain functions are highly localized in the brain and can be eliminated by brain damage to that site, the intelligences are surprisingly flexible and can make use of various senses, parts of the brain, and chance opportunities. (Even the blind can develop spatial intelligence.) The intelligences follow characteristic patterns of development in childhood, yet those patterns are diverse enough to prohibit one from prescribing a set pathway by which children should develop. While these intelligences appear in cultures all over the world, different cultures value them differently. Each of the seven intelligences is relatively independent of the others, but they do not often appear separate, because they usually work together and may be understood as separate only after observing many instances of their combined effort.
Gardner suggests how several different intelligences might work together in a concert violinist. In addition to the obvious musicial ability, she will display kinesthetic skills in fingering and bow movement; interpersonal intelligence in communicating with an audience; intrapersonal intelligence in feeling the emotions of the music; logical-mathetmatical skills in analyzing musical structure, planning performances, and making a profit; and so on (xii).

Table 2 summarizes this paper by extrapolating the seven intelligences to suggest how they might manifest in a writer. The framework sketched in Table 2 also suggests a new way to consider a piece of writing or a student writer: Where are the writer's strengths and weaknesses in terms of this model? Research questions arise: Can the stimulation of one intelligence, such as kinesthetic awareness, produce predictable changes in writing style? Will the stimulation of one modality of one intelligence (such as the visual aspect of the spatial intelligence) stimulate other modalities of the same intelligence (the metaphoric aspect of the spatial intelligence)? Flower and Hayes' model of writing suggests how complex the interactions may be between mental functions. What are the interrelationships between the different intelligences during writing--say, between verbal and spatial thought?

Gardner's model is not a unified field theory of mind. It does not attempt to account for some important factors --such as motivation, attention, creativity, inspiration, practical intelligence, and persistence. But Frames of Mind is one of the central texts in the nature of human diversity. It is an intellectual adventure--wide-ranging, deeply thought, and dazzlingly speculative. While conveying a tightly-defined core of concepts, it radiates out into the forefront of many fields of knowledge. Self, others, symbol, brain, and culture blend with a remarkable harmony in this theory. It is a view that honors "innate intellectual proclivities," individual differences, the crucial role of tools and symbol systems, the social nature of knowledge, and the way cultures shape the minds that shape culture.

The lesson of Gardner's book (and of this article) is that people are smart in many different and often surprising ways, and that some of those ways are rarely recognized in our system of schooling. The framework presented by the theory of multiple intelligences can bring new ideas to the writing classroom, and it can add theoretical depth to some existing pedagogical practices. Conversely, a writing classroom can be used as a forum in which students discover multiple intelligences at work in themselves and in others. With a theory such as Gardner's, we might be more able to see beyond the limits of current theories of human ability to find other forms of intelligence permeating all human activities.


I WILL WRITE MY OWN OBSERVATIONS IN CAPITALS AND OTHER RELEVANT ARTICLES IN OBVIOUS ALTERNATIVES.

PREVIOUSLY I HAVE USED THESE PAGES TO DEVELOP MY OWN UNDERSTANDING OF THE HUMAN MIND

BUT MY TIME IS SHORTER NOW I AM NEARLY SEVENTY AND I HAVE LEARNT ALL I NEED TO ARGUE EFFECTIVELY FOR CHANGES IN EARLY EDUCATIONAL PRACTICE.

I WILL NEVER CEASE TRYING TO DEVELOP MY OWN UNDERSTANDING OF THE HUMAN MIND.

BUT THE TIME FOR ME SPEAK ABOUT THE OBVIOUS USE OF COMMON SENSE HAS ARRIVED AND FROM NOW ON

I SHALL RELY MORE ON THE WORDS OF THE WORLD’S PHILOSOPHERS THAN ANYTHING ELSE.

John Nicholson

Zoe 04-11-2009 03:50 AM

Quote:

Originally Posted by John Nicholson (Post 3536)
[size="4"][font="Arial Narrow"]

“What we demonstrate is that we can change the way the brain works,”

Hello,
I just registered on this site and am finding your very interesting posts. I am especially interested in finding information on what type of training is available to improve working memory and attention span other than Cogmed that was developed by Torkel Klinberg. I do some freelance writing and want to do some articles on this topic.
Also, is this a good forum in which to bring up some questions to discuss about issues related to ADHD? I've written some articles about it and would like to be able to discuss some questions about it, especially as a learning disorder. Thanks,
Zoe
p.s. In regards to the article in the post from which you were quoted; why would anyone these days think the brain can't be rewired?

John Nicholson 07-11-2009 01:15 AM

Hi Zoe

The simple answer to your inquiry lays in the fact that not many people are as well informed of the latest brain research as you obviously are.

Proven by


Dr. Klingberg’s is quoted saying that the most important discovery that his research group has made is that cognitive functions like working memory can be improved through training.

---- http://cogmednews.com/?p=367

Thank you for the lead and welcome to the future.

John Nicholson

John Nicholson 08-11-2009 01:23 AM

What do we know about our own brain
 
Every one of us thinks is that we are very good at thinking, but we have little comprehension of just how good we are at thinking, it is simply because the majority of our thinking takes place quite independently from our conscious thinking abilities. We are totally unaware of the majority of our thinking processes simply because it would interfere with our concentration, the use of words are vital in giving explanation when we are considering concepts we have never considered before. How can we consider something when we do not know anything about it, we have simply no natural understanding of just how our minds work.



The Conscious area of your working brain, the area we know most about, is simply the smallest part of your working brain, That area is unconsciously utilising every area of your brain, it is being supplied by many areas of your brain working collectively to provide the conscious area of your mind with the specific information that is required to reason with.

so before we talk about teaching, or learn anything at all about teaching, we have to have some understanding of just how our own brain works, teaching and learning are the most natural human habits we all posses, but without the automatic abilities we posses we would have no language ability, limited memory, and very little hope of surviving as a species on our planet, language is perfectly natural to us, i am using language to give you explanations of human abilities none of us could be ever aware of without deep philosophical thought or scientific exploration, or simply being told about those natural human abilities we all poses in the simplest and most precise use of words i can manage to convey these ideas in.



we are all born with a tremendous brain power but no spelling ability
written badly with my speech recognition system for you to think about.

John Nicholson 26-11-2009 02:24 AM

Corrected start to the final roundup
 
Corrected start to the final roundup


Mathematics taught perfectly can be regarded as the starting point of reading in conjunction with any language used in the world. My observation is this. The word kinaesthetic simply means see and do. Maria Montessori found out that simply by teaching children to copy letters, where they obviously learnt the sounds of those letters, that they were then able to read without being taught anything else, they started to put the sounds of the letters into automatic memory simply by appreciating words in shop windows were the sounds they had been taught were augmented by alternative sounds which were created by automatic memory from the simple realisation of physical meaning when associated with familiar objects, alternative phonetic awareness is part and parcel of every ones learning of a language, no two children can ever learn at exactly the same time the sound of any letter combination, unless they are taught it specifically.

My belief is that if we teach mathematics perfectly, and then proceed to teach the child the alphabet in the sound in which we have all been taught the alphabet in the past and then proceed to teach the child the alternative phonetic sounds in letter combinations in syllables or within short words, then these perfections, established perfectly, bring about the child’s own natural ability to teach its self to read with some assistance.

My observations and hypotheses as regards counting and reading is that they are inevitably combined in developing every child’s neurological pathways, when I say we are all born with a powerful brain, I understand that to mean that there is very little we can fail to understand if we are taught properly. In the development of System One eight years ago, I created a word wheel where a child could use syllables to create words, but my reading, thinking and observation led me to the realisation that the problems started earlier, by the child's inability to recognise the letters perfectly in alphabet sound and then the alternative phonetic sounds created as we use words. Some schools have been so obsessed with phonetic sounds of letters, that the children cannot use the alphabetic sounds of those letters naturally. No two children anywhere develop a final perfect memory of anything at the same time,
Only by concentrating on repetition until perfection is established, can we stop teaching these essential totally perfect realisations.

I see the school day in two parts, the first two hours of any school day should be devoted to formal teaching, the aim of that teaching, is to achieve perfection. Let us all be aware that we have not scratched the surface within the use of kinaesthetic demonstration at the present time within education. Clearly every one of us understands that computers will be the most vital teaching instruments in the future. With a realisation of this and also the realisation that no child will ever use a computer proficiently if they have failed to reach a satisfactory level of mental arithmetic and are clearly unable to read independently utilising a dictionary efficiently, being guided towards the level of reading where they are developing their natural love of reading,


Every one of us can only have a limited understanding of brain function, but I am disappointed with neurological research failing to appreciate just how perfect memory is created, I am trying to link these separately produced papers explaining System One in words, words clear enough for both parents, teachers and highly committed neurological researchers to understand that we need to call for united action in ensuring that everyone of us understands that creating knowledge is

“simply a matter of familiarisation with whatever we require knowledge of.”

“Every child in the world can count and read perfectly”, if a child can speak relatively clearly by the time it is five years old and many can do this years before that. That child is capable of being educated to the highest level that any other child is capable of. Obviously concentration and determination play the biggest part in developing personal knowledge on any subject, after thirteen years of considering our appalling failure to recognise the potential of the human brain to learn quickly. I clearly recognise that no one would wish to prevent children learning quickly, and therefore in reality I am kicking at an open door, but I need assistance from others especially in regards to trials and development of System One, alongside the secondary development concerning the reinforcement of essential lessons.

Children in their final year of primary school are quite capable of assisting younger children to read and count, therefore part of everyday should be dedicated to the development of children teaching each other, as for instance learning to play chess, training younger children to play table tennis, training younger children to naturally understand where each country in the world is physically situated, most probably by simple demonstrations of model ships carrying goods between countries on a floor based map of the world or a world chart utilising small magnetic shipping models.

Considering the difficulties that I found in writing, turning words physically into print even with the occasional assistance of the Dragon Speech when it is working perfectly, I believe that every child should be taught to touch type at the earliest point possible. In the same manner that every child should be taught to play the piano, these two exercises are developments of pure brain function, alongside a greater development of the human mind created by reading and reasoning, developed through physical realisation easily as much, as by imagination. Every child should be able to cook their own food by the time they leave primary school. The list of valuable physical experiences, in regarding the development of brain function is virtually unlimited and the development of primary education has got to be dedicated to the further development of our powerful human brain.
Why should our children sit still in schools when they can learn so much from building essential awareness from thrilling physical activity? Even learning the alphabet correctly can be brought about by changing large letters between pupils on a daily basis, most classes have 26 children at least in them and where there are less than 26 children the bright ones are capable of carrying two letters.

The end of every perfect school day for a primary school child can be brought about quite easily by listening to someone reading, in today's world that someone can be created usefully by mechanical means, children's attention and concentration is naturally built to its highest level when their imaginations are stimulated by a story. Our whole evolution is based on the story.

Hopefully you will understand this story of my own enlightenment, bringing logical reasoning into developing your awareness of how powerful our human brain is. You will have found many connections within your own experience. Every child in the world has the right to the very best education the world can provide. This provision for education is as much the responsibility of the parents as it is of the state, provided we all recognise the possibilities quickly and put the most obviously correct measures into practice directly, dyslexia and dyscalculia will become part of history.

If you have suffered under these two easily corrected problems and overcome them, you more than anyone else will see the benefits of using system one, if you are a primary teacher struggling to teach thirty children to read? will you benefit from thirty sets of parents reading this. If you are a parent and want the very best for your children, can you help them far better after reading this? If you are a Politian and want your party to win the next election will you need to adopt system one to win?

If you have managed to read as far as this congratulations. The primary
education of the world's children is a clear responsibility for everyone.


THAT MEANS YOU

John Nicholson 26-11-2009 02:26 AM

If you have arrived at this point, in reading this lengthy set of instructions and reasoning it is important that you understand why it has been put together at this moment. Only recently have I made a contact with Jon Driver the director of UC London a neurological research scientist with the ability to understand and appreciate the work I have been doing. Also in the last few weeks a number of individuals, Jackie Stewart being one of them expressing his own difficulties as a dyslexic person, alongside a number of other individuals who lately have expressed similar views, these individuals were unable to take a full part in their class`s as young people learning within normal primary education. Their individual schooling was a very unhappy and unsatisfactory experience. This situation can easily be corrected.

I am making the statement that no child in the world can read any language in the world without understanding the relationship between the symbols being used and the meaning of the words. In China words are single symbols. This may seem more difficult to learn than our own written language, but any person described in the United Kingdom as dyslexic, would be just as quick to learn the language has anyone else. The Chinese language can be understood better if we consider the single symbols we use to count with. The ten symbols which we clearly need to understand if we are ever to understand mathematics where give us the meaning of ten. As far as the child is concerned the meaning of the words we use to describe number can be understood by one symbol only and the repetitive pattern of numbers. As far as Chinese reading is concerned the meaning of a word is contained within one symbol. In Chinese writing obviously the symbols will be slightly different but the complications of sound will be represented through the joint picture construction of the symbols not in the manner by which we build the sounds our words are in.

Naturally a child will learn the meaning of a variable quantity of words, within any one days teaching, just in the same manner as a child will learn the meaning of numbers by associating the representation of a number relating it to a meaning with the physical visual appreciation of its hands. This may seem complicated but I can assure you that it is not, simply hold your hands in front of you and create the meaning of every number one to 10 you are presenting a physical demonstration of number. When we want to deal with larger numbers we simply utilise the pattern of the same numbers in the form of simple multiplication by 10 as we advanced towards one million, or as a simple division by 10 as we advanced towards producing one millionth of one.


---------:autumn: ------------------:autumn::autumn:
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John Nicholson 27-11-2009 01:35 AM

Visualisation
 
Psychologists have found that thought patterns used to recall the past and imagine the future are strikingly similar. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging to show the brain at work, they have observed the same regions activated in a similar pattern whenever a person remembers an event from the past or imagines himself in a future situation. This challenges long-standing beliefs that thoughts about the future develop exclusively in the frontal lobe.
Remembering your past may go hand-in-hand with envisioning your future! It's an important link researchers found using high-tech brain scans. It's answering questions and may one day help those with memory loss.
For some, the best hope of 'seeing' the future leads them to seek guidance -- perhaps from an astrologist. But it's not very scientific. Now, psychologists at Washington University are finding that your ability to envision the future does in fact goes hand-in-hand with remembering the past. Both processes spark similar neural activity in the brain.
"You might look at it as mental time travel--the ability to take thoughts about ourselves and project them either into the past or into the future," says Kathleen McDermott, Ph.D. and Washington University psychology professor. The team used "functional magnetic resonance imaging" -- or fMRI -- to "see" brain activity. They asked college students to recall past events and then envision themselves experiencing such an event in their future. The results? Similar areas of the brain "lit up" in both scenarios.
"We're taking these images from our memories and projecting them into novel future scenarios," says psychology professor Karl Szpunar.
Most scientists believed thinking about the future was a process occurring solely in the brain's frontal lobe. But the fMRI data showed a variety of brain areas were activated when subjects dreamt of the future.

WHAT IS SURPRISING ABOUT THIS PIECE OF RESEARCH RESULT EXACTLY NOTHING. WE CAN ONLY USE IDEAS WE ARE CONSCIOUSLY AWARE OF TO CREATE IMAGINARY SCENARIOS IN THE FUTURE

BUT

WHEN WE LOOK AT OUR SUBCONSCIOUS MIND WE FIND MAMMOTH UTILISATION OF THE SUBCONSCIOUS BRAIN CREATING TRULY IMAGINATIVE SOLUTIONS CREATED CONSISTENTLY ON A DAILY BASIS AND LINKED QUITE NATURALLY WITH THE IDEAS WE HAVE UNDER CONSCIOUS CONSIDERATION AT ANY PARTICULAR MOMENT

WE DESCRIBE THIS PHENOMENA AS DREAMING


[FONT="Comic Sans MS
"]"All the regions that we know are important for memory are just as important when we imagine our future,"
Szpunar says.
Researchers say besides furthering their understanding of the brain -- the findings may help research into amnesia, a curious psychiatric phenomenon. In addition to not being able to remember the past, most people who suffer from amnesia cannot envision or visualize what they'll be doing in the future -- even the next day.
BACKGROUND: Researchers from Washington University in St. Louis have used advanced brain imaging techniques to show that remembering the past and envisioning the future may go hand-in-hand, with each process showing strikingly similar patterns of activity within precisely the same broad network of brain regions. This suggests that envisioning the future may be a critical prerequisite for many higher-level planning processes in the brain.
WHAT IS fMRI: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses radio waves and a strong magnetic field rather than X-rays to take clear and detailed pictures of internal organs and tissues. fMRI uses this technology to identify regions of the brain where blood vessels are expanding, chemical changes are taking place, or extra oxygen is being delivered. These are indications that a particular part of the brain is processing information and giving commands to the body. As a patient performs a particular task, the metabolism will increase in the brain area responsible for that task, changing the signal in the MRI image. So by performing specific tasks that correspond to different functions, scientists can locate the part of the brain that governs that function.
ABOUT THE STUDY: The researchers relied on fMRI to capture patterns of brain activation as college students were given 10 seconds to develop a vivid mental image of themselves or a famous celebrity participating in a range of common life experiences. Presented with a series of memory cues -- such as getting lost, spending time with a friend, or attending a birthday party -- participants were asked to recall a related event from their own past; to envision themselves experiencing such an event in their future life; or to picture a famous celebrity (specifically, former U.S. president Bill Clinton) participating in such an event.
WHAT THEY FOUND: Comparing images of brain activity in response to the 'self-remember' and 'self future' event cues, researchers found a surprisingly complete overlap among regions of the brain used for remembering the past and those used for envisioning the future. The study clearly demonstrates that the neural network underlying future thoughts is not only happening in the brain's frontal cortex. Although the frontal lobes play an important role in carrying out future-oriented operations -- such as anticipation, planning and monitoring -- the spark for these activities may be the process of envisioning yourself in a specific future event. And that's an activity based on the same brain network used to remember memories about our own lives. Also, patterns of activity suggest that the visual and spatial context for our imagined future is often pieced together using our past experiences, including memories of specific body movements: data our brain has stored as we navigated through similar settings in the past.
[/font]

John Nicholson 15-12-2009 01:01 AM

On the Nature of Human Plasticity:


In the human brain…there are approximately 1 trillion neurons, and each single neuron typically engages in 100-1000 synaptic contacts with other neurons. This means that the number of synapses in the human brain is between 1014 to 1015, or about 1 quadrillion. Yet the number of possible synaptic connections is still greater. "If we assume that each neuron can contact 100 other neurons and then compute all the possible combinations among the 1012 neurons, we end up with a number that is larger than the total number of atomic particles that compose of the entire known universe

[SIZE="7"]
…as the brain develops, the possibilities for connections among neurons are virtually limitless…suggesting the capacity for the human brain may be almost without limit"
[/
SIZE]

While some may realize the importance of our body's plastic nature, nobody, not even those who devote their entire lives to uncovering the mysteries of neural plasticity, completely understands the incredibly complex and variable process. Does the brain have the ability to fully understand something as intricate as itself? The contents of this paper attempt to shed some light on the complexity underlying neural plasticity by reviewing some of its basic principals. Within the last few years, some neural plasticity researches have turned much of their attention towards the apparent promise of stem cells and the profound physiological consequences of stress. For this reason, their application concerning neural plasticity will also be discussed. Finally, this paper also provides information on factors that may influence recovery from neuropsychological impairments.

With the tremendous amount of research aimed at revealing the mysteries of neurogenesis, there was an unexpected finding: Not only does the brain engage in neurogenesis, but it also appears to have a small reserve of stem cells located in various tissues of the body. Stem cells come in two varieties: embryonic and adult. As their first names imply, embryonic stem cells are retrieved from embryos and adult stem cells derive from adults. Basically, stem cells, regardless of their original source, have three general properties that make them unique. First, stem cells are capable of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods. Secondly, they are unspecialized, meaning that they are not confined to becoming only acertain type of cell. Finally, and arguably most important, stem cells posses the ability to become any type of mature cell, called totipotental. Stem cells have the capacity to"…give rise to itself (self-renewal) and can also give rise to any or all of the three main cell lineages of the brain:


Although there have been many studies that claim neurogenesis occurs in multiple regions in the brain, there have only been a few reports that have been substantiated. The substantiated reports showing neurogenesis in the brain state that it only occurs robustly in two areas of the brain: the forebrain and the hippocampus. It appears a significantly large number of neurons migrate from the forebrain to the olfactory bulb using ventricles positioned on the forebrain. The evidence pointing to neurogenesis in the hippocampus states that it occurs within the denate gyrus of the hippocampus (Macher, 2004). The olfactory bulb is involved in our interpretation of smell, and the hippocampus plays a crucial role in forming new memories. The fact that both of these structures are essentially forced to adapt, be it because of a combination of new smells or memories, leads to a general theory regarding plasticity, specifically neurogenesis. The theory states that the possible significance of neurogenesis could be that it provides the plasticity necessary to process and code the novel information processed by the olfactory bulb and hippocampus (Macher, 2004). A study by Emory University researchers in 2001 produced results, in adult rats, that showed newly generated neurons in several forebrain structures,"including the parenchyma (gray mater) of the striatum, septum, thalamus and hypothalamus"; areas that serve a multitude of cognitive and vital neurological functions" (Growth factor, 2001, p.1). Researchers were able to generate these results by inducing the growth factor BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic growth factor) into the lateral ventricle of adult rat brains for a period of two weeks. They waited for two weeks before examining the brains. Previous studies had detected only a very limited level of neurogenesis in the thalamus, septum and striatum. This study also produced some interesting evidence involving the unique existence of progenitor cells in a region of the subventricular zone and therostal migratory stream (Growth factor, 2001). These results are important because these progenitor cells are able to divide and produce progeny, also known as daughter cells. In every other part of the brain the neurons appear to be post-mitotic, cells that are unable to divide. The presence of these progenitor cells leads researchers to believe that the adult forebrain has a more profound capacity for neurogenesis than previously thought.

There are currently three theories as to how neurons and axons grow and reorganize themselves with their respective position. The Blueprint Hypothesis states that the correct location is found by following "chemical landmarks" along the path. The Topographic Gradient theory proposes that neurons and axons grow and essentially travel in a group to their correct location.

The Chemoaffinity Hypothesis states that chemical signals at the target zone attract neurons and axons to their proper location. Each of the above theories has been tested experimentallyand proven to occur. However, it appears that the "chosen" method of re-organization may be dependent on the type of system, be that visual or tactile, that needs to be reorganized. The fundamental key allowing PNS plasticity, in this case, regeneration, is the Schwann cells.

By the1990's, scientists had clearly proved neurogenesis does indeed occur in certain areas of the adult brain (Macher, 2004). This exciting news sparked a whole new array of questions about the abilities and methods of the CNS with regard to plasticity.

The extraordinarily complex processes involved in neuronal plasticity may cause the basics to appear not so basic, and indeed, they are not. The term neural plasticity encompasses many different ideas and processes. Basically, it refers to the ability of neurons within our bodies to adapt. These methods include but are notlimited to: neural degeneration, neural regeneration, neural reorganization and neural transplantation.

In order to understand how neurons and axons grow, it is first necessary to understand how they die. Neural degeneration occurs in two ways: Anterograde degeneration and retrograde degeneration. Anterograde refers to the degeneration of the distal segment, or the section of a cut axon between the cut and the synaptic terminals. Retrograde refers to degeneration of the proximal segment, or the portion of a cut axon between the cut and the cell body.

Within the past thirty or so years, great strides have been made in the field of Neuroscience. These great strides have also provided an increased understanding of plasticity. As with most incredibly complex problems, our increased knowledge has given rise to yet more questions concerning the processes underlying neural plasticity.

Researchers now know that neurogenesis is possible in the CNS given the perfect experimental conditions. Yet they have yet to pin down the exact conditions that permit re-growth in multiple tissues. Research on stem cells indicates that they have a profound potential to help millions of people in a variety of ways. However, our current level of knowledge and comprehension on these issues prevents us from using them to their greatest potential.

Questioning the possible consequences of unbalancing the equation, leading to an increase of neurons, leads one to ponder how our cognitive abilities might be enhanced by such a change. Now that researchers have proven that the adult human brain does engage in neurogenesis, they have another problem to solve.

For researchers to understand the complex dynamics of neurogenesis, they must uncover the factors that control cell proliferation, their creation, cell migration, moving to where they are needed, and cell differentiation, turning into the type of cell that is needed.
When scientists have a true in-depth understanding of these three processes, only then will they begin to understand the true possibilities of neurogenesis.


“AS THE BRAIN DEVELOPS, THE POSSIBILITIES FOR CONNECTIONS AMONG NEURONS ARE VIRTUALLY LIMITLESS…SUGGESTING THE CAPACITY FOR THE HUMAN BRAIN MAY BE ALMOST WITHOUT LIMIT"

HOW ARE WE TO USE THESE VERY COSTLY BUILT AREAS OF RESEARCH, SOME OF THE INFORMATION WE NEED TO UTILISE EVEN WITH THE PRESENT PROVEN RESEARCH HAS TO BE OF A PHILOSOPHICAL NATURE. FOR MY OWN HYPOTHESIS I CONSIDER THAT THE POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENT OF OUR HUMAN BRAIN IS WITHOUT ANY OBVIOUS RESTRICTIONS OTHER THAN THE INDIVIDUAL HUMAN INTEREST NEEDED TO PURSUE ANY AREA OF RESEARCH HAVING THE TIME AVAILABLE AND THE CO-OPERATION OF THE DEVELOPED WORLD’S GOVERNMENTS.
SOMETHING THEY APPEAR TO BE UNABLE TO GET THEIR HEADS AROUND, IN MY THIRTEEN YEARS OF CONSIDERING HUMAN BRAIN FUNCTION I HAVE YET TO SEE ONE DEMANDED CHANGE WITHIN EDUCATION, NEURO RESEARCH HAS TO BECOME THE LEADING EDGE OF EDUCATIONAL CHANGE IF IS TO BE CONTINUED, TO BE FUNDED AT THE LEVELS IT HAS BEEN.

John Nicholson 15-12-2009 03:46 AM

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****** http://www.childrenofthecode.org/Tour/c3b/nat_nurt.htm



THIS IS VERY GOOD

John Nicholson 23-12-2009 06:47 PM

Playing chess helps children excel in maths

Why play chess


Chess is a thinking game. It is a fair game in that the player is responsible for the fate of the game and there is no other intervention in the game either in the form of luck or in the form of chance. One thing that can be said to be a chance or luck is nothing but the mistake of the opponent.

In general, the player needs to think, analyze, visualize, plan, decide and execute a series of moves applying tactics and strategies to say “checkmate” to the opponent.

If children were taught this noble game at their tender age and encouraged to play the game, they will perform better in their academic career and outshine others – this is a finding of a research study.

Many countries have introduced the game of chess as part of their school curriculum and have made it a subject or game that each child should learn and play regularly.

How the game of chess will help children perform well in mathematics?
One of the most important subjects that a child is taught in school is the subject of mathematics. This is a vital subject and everyone needs to master it in order to fully understand quantity and to pursue all science subjects.

The importance of mathematics is that it cannot just be learnt by memorizing it by heart, like history or literature, where it can be easy to memorize the lessons and reproduce those memories for exams.

But that is not case with maths. You cannot just memorize the formulas of algebra, reproduce it in examination without thinking it through. The basics of mathematics such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division needs to be understood thoroughly and will be used during your lifetime.

Memorizing the nuances of mathematics and making use of them, at times of necessity should become possible. One needs to understand the concepts thoroughly and apply thinking, to solve the problems of mathematics.

Thinking, concentration, problem-solving and analytical abilities are the pre-requisites for the game of chess as well. And the good thing is that these reasoning skills are taught in a fun way. Children enjoy the game and as part of their play, they learn these essential skills.

Understanding the concepts, applying concentration, attention and analyzing the various types of problems is what is required in mathematics.
Playing chess will not only help children perform better in mathematics, but also teach very important and invaluable lessons to the children. According to research, it has been found that playing chess helps children to develop and enhance their:

• visual memory
• attention span
• spatial reasoning skills
• capacity to anticipate events
• capacity to predict events
• ability to use analytical skills to make decisions, and
• ability to evaluate alternatives.

Most of these things are used to learn and excel in the subject of mathematics and also to face the problems with confidence and lead a successful life.

Now, teaching children the game of chess and encouraging them to play the game with fun has become much easier, thanks to the advancement of technology and the increased use of the Internet. Online chess helps children learn the game in a intresting way with innumerable puzzles and tutorials.

Children should be taught to play at an early age. Involving them in physical exercises, games, and sports activities make their body stronger and healthier. If the game of chess is also taught to children, their brains will also be exercised and the children will become both physically and mentally confident.

Chess has one further benefit when introduced to any school as a regular subject, it can become a vital safe way of intermixing both age and sex groups, older girls in particular would be extremely valuable in teaching younger children chess rules and assisting children who may benefit from reading assistance. Shyness could be easily overcome in a primary school where regular supervised intermixing takes place between the differing age groups.

We are all programmed to rapidly evaluate the new people we come into contact with and where children are used to meeting both adults and other children regularly their social skills are always easily recognized benefitting them throughout their lives.

Supervised association would not only prevent bullying of any nature and total school awareness on a personal level would eliminate conflict in any primary school that was not to gigantic.

John Nicholson 26-12-2009 09:27 AM

THE LETTER

What is system one


Abacus House
The Green
Bishop Burton
East Yorkshire
HU17 8QF

My Dear Friend

You are a human being, I do not know you personally but I know if you can read this letter you are just as responsible for the problems the word has, as I am.

What is system one?

System One Is my personal response to sorting out the link between parents their children and state schools.

I am British, my natural language is English, but my universal system of early education can be adapted into any language.

I am composing this letter, as of the twenty sixth day of December Two Thousand and Nine. Boxing day. Reading my watch I is see it is Six Am, I have already been awake two hours thinking about the solutions to all the problems the world has, alongside the individual problems each one living in it has, and of course the problem I myself have, in giving explanation to my Universal solution of Early And Easy Education.

For More than thirteen years of my life, I have woken up to virtually the same problem, or minute parts of my universal solution

“System One”

How could something absorb anyone to committing so much time to anything as simple as teaching a child to count read and write and think logically.

I was seven Years into a legal dispute between myself and two universal Businesses Midland Bank and Unilever, learning about business law and the practical frailties of it, regarding ever reaching a legal solution through the British courts, eventually I lost my Commercial Case against them. Since then I have discovered they actually broke the civil law. Combining together to impose a solution on a third party is actual illegal within British law and now that my

“System One”

Is virtually complete, I plan to reengage those two Companies in a criminal action which has no time limit within British Law. Individual Justice is what I am most concerned about, how does individual justice come into universal education, our species is dependent on it, naturally we have the right to share ever piece of information that is of value to our human family.

Personally I see no probability of any other form of intelligent life anywhere other than our own planet.

Our human existence on a continuing basis will be entirely dependent on shared knowledge, we cannot take advantage of that shared knowledge without the ability to count efficiently and estimate quantity quite naturally, we cannot share our ideas without the ability to read and write at will. Without these two major abilities no one will be able to think logically.

Individual Justice is being denied to any normal healthy child that is not taught to read and count efficiently.

Utilising one system of early learning; “THE BEST”

My own “System One” which can be taught by demonstration to any normal adult in one day. This means no child being denied the ability to educate itself at will, with the guidance of others.

My instantaneous realisation of just how intelligent we are came about through watching a television programme. That has become the predominant means of human learning, seeing something and realising how it is done and what the benefits of doing it are on a global basis, has taken us from learning everything on tribal and then national basis to a universal basis.

One properly made and widely shown television programme in ever language, commissioned by every national government once our chosen political leaders have been made to understand the benefits of using one simple system for counting reading and thinking logically.

SYSTEM ONE will insure that we may start to make the rapid progress within the individual ability to teach ourselves everything we need to KNOW personally.

We are creatures of habit, and regular reading and thinking sessions can quickly become part of our daily lives once we have been taught efficiently just how to do that.

My instantaneous realisation was that Asian children being taught mathematics on an abacus had no difficulty whatsoever in visualising arithmetic process at a very early age and quickly developed a thorough knowledge of mathematics.

This letter is intended to introduce you to my early and easy learning “System One”

I am a farmer who built up an efficient farming business that had cost over Four Million pounds to establish, which now would be worth over ten million pounds should the same business be in place.

I shall be seventy years old on the fifteenth of September and in the year two thousand and ten I intend to leave education research to those who still have much to learn, returning to my interest in feeding people and looking after my own family.

John Nicholson


John Nicholson 31-12-2009 06:40 PM

Scientists Discover a Controller of Brain Circuitry
 
Scientists Discover a Controller of Brain Circuitry

ScienceDaily (Dec. 30, 2009)

— By combining a research technique that dates back 136 years with modern molecular genetics, a Johns Hopkins neuroscientist has been able to see how a mammal's brain shrewdly revisits and reuses the same molecular cues to control the complex design of its circuits.

Details of the observation in lab mice, published Dec. 24 in Nature, reveal that semaphorin, a protein found in the developing nervous system that guides filament-like processes, called axons, from nerve cells to their appropriate targets during embryonic life, apparently assumes an entirely different role later on, once axons reach their targets. In postnatal development and adulthood, semaphorins appear to be regulating the creation of synapses -- those connections that chemically link nerve cells.

"With this discovery we're able to understand how semaphorins regulate the number of synapses and their distribution in the part of the brain involved in conscious thought," says David Ginty, Ph.D., a professor in the neuroscience department at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator. "It's a major step forward, we believe, in our understanding of the assembly of neural circuits that underlie behavior."
Because the brain's activity is determined by how and where these connections form, Ginty says that semaphorin's newly defined role could have an impact on how scientists think about the early origins of autism, schizophrenia, epilepsy and other neurological disorders.

The discovery came as a surprise finding in studies by the Johns Hopkins team to figure out how nerve cells develop axons, which project information from the cells, as well as dendrites, which essentially bring information in. Because earlier work from the Johns Hopkins labs of Ginty and Alex Kolodkin, Ph.D., showed that semaphorins affect axon trajectory and growth, they suspected that perhaps these guidance molecules might have some involvement with dendrites.

Kolodkin, a professor in the neuroscience department at Johns Hopkins and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator, discovered and cloned the first semaphorin gene in the grasshopper when he was a postdoctoral fellow. Over the past 15 years, numerous animal models, including strains of genetically engineered mice, have been created to study this family of molecules.

Using two lines of mice -- one missing semaphorin and another missing neuropilin, its receptor -- postdoctoral fellow Tracy Tran used a classic staining method called the Golgi technique to look at the anatomy of nerve cells from mouse brains. (The Golgi technique involves soaking nerve tissue in silver chromate to make cells' inner structures visible under the light microscope; it allowed neuroanatomists in 1891 to determine that the nervous system is interconnected by discrete cells called neurons.)

Tran saw unusually pronounced "spines" sprouting willy-nilly in peculiar places and in greater numbers on the dendrites in the neurons of semaphorin-lacking and neuropilin-lacking mice compared to the normal wild-type animals. It's at the tips of these specialized spines that a lot of synapses occur and neuron-to-neuron communication happens, so Tran suspected there might be more synapses and more electrical activity in the neurons of the mutant mice.

The researchers tested this hypothesis by examining even thinner brain slices under an electron microscope.

The spines of both semaphorin-lacking and neuropilin-lacking mice were dramatically enlarged, compared to those of the smaller, spherical-looking spines in the wild-type mice. In wild types, Tran generally noted a single site of connection per spine. In the mutants, the site of connection between two neurons was often split.

Next, the team recorded the electrical output of mutant and wild-type neurons and found that the mutants, with more spines and larger spines, also had about a 2.5-times increase in the frequency of electrical activity, suggesting that this abnormal synaptic transmission is due to an increase in the number of synapses.
What causes synapses to form or not form in appropriate or inappropriate places is an extremely important and poorly understood process in the development of the nervous system, Kolodkin says, explaining that the neurons his team studies can have up to 10,000 synaptic connections with other neurons. If connections between neurons are not being formed how and where they're supposed to, then miscommunication occurs and circuits malfunction; as a result, any number of diseases or disorders might develop.

"Seizures can be interpreted as an uncontrolled rapid-firing of certain neural circuits," Kolodkin asserts. "Clearly there's a deficit in these animals that has a human corollary with respect to epilepsy. It's also thought that schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders have developmental origins of one sort or another. There likely are aspects to the formation of synapses -- if they're not in the correct location and in the correct number -- that lead to certain types of defects. The spine deficits in these mice that are lacking semaphorin or its receptor appear very similar to those that are found in Fragile X, for instance."
This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

Johns Hopkins authors of this paper are Tracy S. Tran, Alex L. Kolodkin, David D. Ginty, Richard L. Huganir, Roger L. Clem, and Dontais Johnson. Other authors are Maria E. Rubio of the University of Connecticut; and Lauren Case and Marc Tessier-Lavigne, of Stanford University.


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