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Memory: IS VERY IMPORTANT...


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Old 26-07-2005, 10:40 AM   #51
Christina
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Cognitive engagement may potentiate the brain for learning

There is some neurobiological research in support of the notion that cognitive engagement potentiates the brain for learning. Please read my review of this below.


A factor that contributes to the brain’s receptiveness to learning at a given moment is the degree of cognitive engagement. The degree of cognitive engagement is reflected by the amount of attention directed toward a given task and is shaped by the behavioral relevance of the task. Studies at both the cellular and systems level have identified behavioral relevance and attention as important factors in the regulation of neural plasticity.

Recanzone et al. (1993) used a control in which a group of monkeys received auditory stimuli but were engaged in a tactile discrimination task so that the auditory stimuli were not behaviorally relevant. They found that the changes in cellular properties induced by behaviorally relevant training were not apparent in these passively stimulated controls. Specifically, they found that the latency of response was shorter in monkeys trained at a behaviorally relevant task than in non-trained or passively stimulated controls; in fact, the latency of response of the passively stimulated controls was not significantly different from that of untrained controls. Similarly, the changes in tuning properties induced by training were significantly greater in monkeys trained at a behaviorally relevant task than in passively stimulated or non-trained controls. The faster response properties and the change in tuning properties may reflect cellular adaptations that contributed to the increase in efficiency of information processing that was responsible for the parallel improvement in behavioral performance. These results demonstrate that use-dependent adaptive changes in cellular properties were not induced with passive stimulation; the monkey needed to be actively engaged in the task for the changes to occur. Further, Ahissar et al. (1992) reported direct evidence that changes in the functional connection between cells requires behavioral relevance. They induced neurons in the cortex of awake monkeys to fire action potentials together and then measured the strength of the synaptic connection between these neurons. They found the functional connection between them was potentiated only when the stimuli that induced them was behaviorally relevant. Thus, Hebbian coincidence was not sufficient to induce synaptic strengthening; behavioral relevance was also required. In conjunction, attention has been found to modulate the single-neuron response to stimuli such that attended stimuli increases activity more than non-attended stimuli (Recanzone and Wurtz, 2000). This result, taken with that of Ahissar et al. (1992), suggests that directing attention toward behaviorally-relevant tasks increases the activity of neurons and thus strengthens the synaptic connection between them.

Studies at the systems level have indicated that behavioral relevance is a prerequisite for plastic changes as well. In parallel with their results at the cellular level, Reconzone et al. (1993) found that systems-level plasticity in the auditory cortex also required behavioral relevance. Specifically, they found that passively stimulated monkeys did not undergo expansion of the cortical representation of involved auditory areas as the monkeys who were trained with behaviorally relevant stimuli did. A similar result was found in the somatosensory cortex (Recanzone et al., 1992): When stimuli that were not behaviorally relevant were applied to the fingers of a group of control monkeys, the representational area of the stimulated finger in the somatosensory cortex did not enlarge as it had in the group of monkeys that were treated with behaviorally relevant tactile stimuli. Taken together, this research indicates that behavioral relevance, active involvement and engagement of attentional facilities are necessary for changes in brain circuitry that are thought to underlie learning and memory.
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Old 26-07-2005, 02:35 PM   #52
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Karldw
The discussion of cognition and memory is dangerously narrow. The situation is far more complex to be able to draw conclusions from what is said.
Hi Karl,

I wasn't avoiding your quote; I am just not sure how to answer it. Would you expatiate more on your statement of the discussion of cognition and memory is dangerously narrow. I need a bit more information. My cognition has not had its decaf yet this morning.
Best,
Rob
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Old 26-07-2005, 02:38 PM   #53
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Memory: Is Very Important.

Christina,
Thank you for the excellent reply. I wish I had said that.
Be well,
Rob
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Old 26-07-2005, 07:24 PM   #54
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Memory:Is Very Important "Mother knows best".

Good mid day in sunny San Diego. I was doing a great deal of thinking when I woke up from a very excellent SLEEP. My mother always did tell me that you must get your rest. I thought she was just being nice. Well we have some biological underpinnings that tell us that "sleep" really does help in memory and learning.


Maybe we have been taking our younger years....teens and twenties and studying or cramming so hard the few nights before a test that it might have got us through the test, but the memory and learning were fast gone.
We can actually tell our classes that a contributing factor to good memory and learning is taking good care of yourself and have a good night sleep. Well, guess what...we are going to find out why?
URL: http://www.brainconnection.com/topic...ep-deprivation
URL: http://www.fi.edu/brain/sleep.htm
URL: http://66.102.7.104/search?q=cache:T...hl=en&ie=UTF-8

Be well,
Rob
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Old 27-07-2005, 06:53 AM   #55
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Memory: Is Very Important...Princeton has a smart mouse.

Princeton University has helped in disclosing their smart mouse studies. They use the underpinnings for mouse experiments for memory and learning.
Take a "look see".
Be well,
Rob


URL: http://www.princeton.edu/pr/pwb/99/0913/p/smart.shtml
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Old 27-07-2005, 04:15 PM   #56
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Smart Mice

Hi Rob, yes, these are very interesting experiments. They suggest an eminent ethical debate as well...
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Old 27-07-2005, 06:41 PM   #57
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Memory: Is Very Important...Dr. Marian Diamond

Dr. Marian Diamond who is a professor at University of California, Berkeley is well known for her experiments on animals/rats/mice etc. She is truly a nice lady who is thorough in her study of anatomy of the brain too. Interesting url for you to read and "take a look see". Enjoy your day.

URL: http://www.newhorizons.org/neuro/diamond_aging.htm

Best,
Rob
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Old 01-08-2005, 10:46 PM   #58
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Memory is very important...Memory games to play.

There is a URL that you may enjoy regarding games of memory...I looked it over and some of you may want to use them in class.
Be well,
Rob

URL: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/chmemory.html
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Old 02-08-2005, 12:42 AM   #59
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Memory: Aplysia is a sea slug...we are look closely at it.

Sea slug is giving us good memory information....take a look see.

Best,
Rob

URL: http://www.mni.mcgill.ca/nm/1997f/en/aplysia.htm

URL: http://www.brembs.net/learning/aplysia/
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Old 03-08-2005, 12:50 AM   #60
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Memory: is learning [some fun games to use at school]

Some fun games to use at school and at home regarding memory and learning.....We will be back to the sea slug in due time.
Best,
Rob

Retrieved from the internet on August 2, 2005
URL: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/chmemory.html
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Old 03-08-2005, 08:31 PM   #61
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Memory: Interesting Book and back to the Sea Hare....

Hi, I am reading a very interesting but different kind of book that is easy reading but hard to explain why it is different...I guess it is really totally non-fiction but reads like a novel. The name of the book is Nerve Endings: The discovery of the Synapse: The quest to find how brain cells communicate by Richard Rapport, M.D. [2005]

It has an historical backgound on the early findings of the synapse along with the neuon theory and the reticular theory. The debates were very intense back then...still are today but not on these two theories....

The sea hare or Aplysia has around 20,000 nerve cells in its central nervous system. I have included a URL about the Aplysia which is really a primary source of biology and the beginning of underpinnings that will be causative when taught.
Best, Retrieved from the internet August 3, 2005
Rob

URL: http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ult...#Sensitization
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Old 07-08-2005, 10:00 AM   #62
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Memory: Is Very Important...

Memory storage and learning that takes place in the brain can really be first traced to studies of habituation in simple experimental animals. What does this mean? What implications does this have for memory and learning? They first used simple experimental animals [which researchers do most all the time]. So why is this even important? Well, for several reasons, it is very IMPORTANT?

Remember that we talked about the two salient memories sytems...non- declarative and declarative...; nondeclarative memory which habituation is its simplest form is the beginning of in-depth study on memory and learning. This point is so important that we had better reflect on it for a bit until we realize that something profound might begin to occur in our own thinking. Nondeclarative memory has been studied most effectively in the simple reflex systems of invertebrates and vertebrates. The cell biological insights that have been obtained from these simple systems, however have proven to be true for more comlex animals and more complex forms of memory.[Squire and Kandel Memory: From mind to molecules, 2000]

Nondeclarative memory of habituation is that part of memory or learning that we unconsciously accept when we get use to initially disturbing noises. An example could well be that we moved into a house directly adjacent to an major international airport. Lets say that we needed to live within driving distance for work and this house was a good deal except that the noise was terrible. The realtor who was showing us the house stated that you will get use to the noise and that everyone of his clients who purchased around here adapted to the pleasant hummmmmmmmm of the engines twenty-four hours per day. At first you don't believe him since you can barely hear him tell you this. But this is the beginning of indepth knowledge, starting with a simplest case of nondeclarative memory, habituation.

I am going to pause here and repeat an url regarding experiments on animals that will help to understand nondeclarative memory and habituation.
If you need to come back to this page many times, do so and get the underpinnings of habituation as part of your long term memory. It will really pay off.
This url was retrieved from the internet August 3, 2005.
URL: http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ult...#Sensitization

These URLs on habituation were retrieved from the internet on August 7, 2005.
URL: http://www.sahs.uth.tmc.edu/brainsurf/aplysia1.html

URL: http://www.animalbehavioronline. com/habituation.html

URL: http://members.aol.com/tonyjeffs/text/habit.htm

URL: http://www.geocities.com/cell_learning/Habituation.htm

URL: http://www.bchs.uh.edu/faculty.php?155622-961-5=aeskin
Be well,
Rob
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Old 11-08-2005, 07:53 AM   #63
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Memory Is Very Important [fundamentals]

Please continue studying the prior page until you feel that you really have it. It is too soon to move on.
Best,
Rob
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Old 11-08-2005, 01:21 PM   #64
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hi rob

try this guy for size BRAIN SIZE

He will blow your mind

http://uk.altavista.com/web/results?...t.&kgs=1&kls=0
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Old 12-08-2005, 06:08 AM   #65
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Memory: Is Very Important

HI.....Please continue to review pg. 62 of this memory thread. Be sure to read carefully all of the hyperlinks. Remember that nondeclarative memory is unconscious memory....and declarative memory is conscious memory. There is a difference between these two....and you know what it is. Remember the aplysia and the habituation tests that were discussed.
Have a good evening,
Best,
Rob
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Old 15-08-2005, 08:27 AM   #66
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movin on

IDEAS

Our conscious brain, whilst we are concerned with the mind, all we shall ever have whilst we are using our conscious mind is “word related” whilst we are writing reading and thinking we our consciously responding to sound, at least that is what is driving my own mind and thoughts, for me written words are being decoded from pictures of words which my own mind translates into sound, sound, “ mental sound” is the means by which I consider ideas.
Those mental sounds create for me the
“ image in action”
(my own perception of the working mind) into what I then consider as the (whole mind) (total conscious brain ability) obviously the thought processes that we shall best understand will be for ever our own mind (our personal ability to reason) will always be limited by what we now, what we know all will always depend on two items, “MEMORY” and “REASON”
In just the same manner as we have conscious and subconscious memory, I believe we have conscious and subconscious reasoning ability.

When we investigate the vast storage ability within our own mind especially the subconscious storage ability concerned with our own natural language, and on to, the even vaster possibilities of the
Subconscious memory retraining pictures of everything we have ever seen, alongside of everything we have ever (thought) (image in action) created in our imagination the possibilities of the potential of the human mind are awesome. (my previous interpretation of that word was ausome so thanks Dr Johnson)

Alongside the physical consideration of what we are obviously becoming evermore aware of, we (have) need to consider (reason) as the most obvious road to understanding.

It is as equally important to examine the abilities of other human beings as it is to make scientific study of other living creatures and of our own physical working brain.

We must always be conscious of the fact that we shall never be part of each other's processing ability, but we may share of the fruits of each other's ideas purely through our ability to communicate within the written word and the ability we have to decode the written word into sound.

I am hopeful that the above communication helps anyone who takes the bother to read it, to understand my obsession with the teaching of basic skills, working mathematics is the nearest thing we have to subconscious and conscious thought, but even more serious than that without our personal ability to read we would all be stumbling around in the dark.
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Old 15-08-2005, 07:34 PM   #67
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Memory: Is Very Important...

Well if you have had an opportunity to read the hyperlinks that I retrieved for you, you are ready to move on. I think the next step is to learn about HM (patient) initials only. HM is a well know case that is continually mentioned in memory studies since the l950's.

He suffered from epilespy ....Studies on HM led to great insights into memory formation. The url that I have for you to read and remember if you are truly interested was retrieved today, August 15, 2005 from the internet.
This is a Wikipedia encyclopedia review. We will start here based on most peoples prior learning phase.

URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HM_%28patient%29

Be well,
Rob
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Old 16-08-2005, 05:12 AM   #68
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Memory: Is very Important...[More on HM]

HM as I mentioned earlier is a good case study. Lets follow HM and see where he leads us in terms of knowledge of memory.
Retrieved today, August 15, 2005 from the internet.
URL: http://www.brainconnection.com/topic...n=fa/hm-memory
Best,
Rob
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Old 16-08-2005, 08:31 PM   #69
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Memory: IS VERY IMPORTANT.....

I am not leaving HM but I am really interested in the accessment of nondeclarative memory and learning. Since nondeclarative memory and learning are part of the nonconscious, yet we are able to activity prove our knowledge, shouldn't we be spending a little more time assessing accurately.

I am so excited about this one that it is similar to given a swimming accessment on dry land....yet we do it everyday in the classroom. Am I wrong.
Best,
Rob
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Old 17-08-2005, 05:25 AM   #70
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Memory: IS VERY IMPORTANT...

Well I am wonder if HM had priming with his difficult situation with memory and learning? I will be looking for this in my books and the internet.
It seems that Dr. Larry Squire introduced much of what we learned of priming years ago....
Retrieved these URLs on August 16, 2005.
Best,
Rob

URL: http://www.personal.rdg.ac.uk/~sxs98ltb/home.html
URL: http://core.ecu.edu/psyc/grahamr/DW_.../KW_18_RG.html
URL: http://www.cdl.org/resource-library/articles/memory.php
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Old 17-08-2005, 12:14 PM   #71
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Hi Rob,
I share your interest in non-declarative memory.
Yet the definitions to refer 'riding a bike' and 'swimming' as examples.

Yet, I would suggest that this may be too narrow?
I have been investigating the maths disorder of Dyscalculia, where a major factor is a 'visual-spacial deficit'. Or in other words; A deficit in 'Mental Imaging' skills. To picture an image in ones 'minds eye', and then to mentally manipulate the image.
Where I would suggest that the process that enables 'mental imaging' is in fact a non-declarative activity.
Also the ability to 'sub-vocalise' as non-declarative, which enables us think verbally in our mind.

Equally the learnt association of the written letter 'A' with the mental 'sound' of 'A'. Where an automatic external visual/ internal sound relationship is developed. Which I wonder if has become non-declarative memory.
Further to this, is the association of the number 9, the word nine, and the quantity in one's mind?
Also linguistically we have the word; 'the' ?
When we begin from birth in the acquisition of 'language'. I would suggest that this is initially laid down as non-declarative memory?
Which over time builds a foundation to then be able to engage with declarative information.
This may also provide an explanation for research that has identified a neural closure of language acquisition around the age of 12? Which concludes that a second language should be introduced prior to this age.
Though what actually closes at this point has mystified me?
Yet, I am caused to speculate that this may represent a closure in the non-declarative acquisition of a language? Where a language learnt after this age, will be learnt as declarative information.
Perhaps this provides an explanation of the anecdote that learning gets harder as one gets older? Where the transition from non-declarative memory learning to exclusive declarative memory learning is key factor?

It also raises the important broader issue of non-declarative sensory usage development? Where the basic fact that the left brain controls the right side of body and vise versa. Is a major area where learning disorders occur.
For example, the left ear might process information 10 milli-seconds ahead of the right ear? Which makes listening somewhat confused. Which in turn effects literacy development.
Equally, left/ right eye convergence ability is crucial to read text on a page.
Where the only solution to the resulting literacy problem. Is to address the non-declarative visual problem.
Also we have a broad range of 'learning difficulties' that result from Fine and/or Gross Motor Skills problems. Too numerous to mention.

These are just a few examples of non-declarative disorders which seriously effect learning.
But the crucial factor, is that these non-declarative disorders can be relearnt and overcome.
Though their is little if any attention given to the development of non-declarative skills. Where it is assumed that they are already perfectly developed?
Therefore I would suggest that non-declarative skills development should be an overarching educational focus. To help Students build a complete Tool-Kit to encounter Learning!
Where an Experiential Learning approach, is more supportive of the development of non-declarative skills.

To learn what to think, or how to think?
Geoff.













































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Old 17-08-2005, 05:01 PM   #72
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Memory IS Very IMPORTANT....

[quote=geodob]Hi Rob,
I share your interest in non-declarative memory.
Yet the definitions to refer 'riding a bike' and 'swimming' as examples.

Yet, I would suggest that this may be too narrow?
I have been investigating the maths disorder of Dyscalculia, where a major factor is a 'visual-spacial deficit'. Or in other words; A deficit in 'Mental Imaging' skills. To picture an image in ones 'minds eye', and then to mentally manipulate the image.
Where I would suggest that the process that enables 'mental imaging' is in fact a non-declarative activity.
Also the ability to 'sub-vocalise' as non-declarative, which enables us think verbally in our mind.

Equally the learnt association of the written letter 'A' with the mental 'sound' of 'A'. Where an automatic external visual/ internal sound relationship is developed. Which I wonder if has become non-declarative memory.
Further to this, is the association of the number 9, the word nine, and the quantity in one's mind?
Also linguistically we have the word; 'the' ?
When we begin from birth in the acquisition of 'language'. I would suggest that this is initially laid down as non-declarative memory?
Which over time builds a foundation to then be able to engage with declarative information.
This may also provide an explanation for research that has identified a neural closure of language acquisition around the age of 12? Which concludes that a second language should be introduced prior to this age.
Though what actually closes at this point has mystified me?
Yet, I am caused to speculate that this may represent a closure in the non-declarative acquisition of a language? Where a language learnt after this age, will be learnt as declarative information.
Perhaps this provides an explanation of the anecdote that learning gets harder as one gets older? Where the transition from non-declarative memory learning to exclusive declarative memory learning is key factor?

It also raises the important broader issue of non-declarative sensory usage development? Where the basic fact that the left brain controls the right side of body and vise versa. Is a major area where learning disorders occur.
For example, the left ear might process information 10 milli-seconds ahead of the right ear? Which makes listening somewhat confused. Which in turn effects literacy development.
Equally, left/ right eye convergence ability is crucial to read text on a page.
Where the only solution to the resulting literacy problem. Is to address the non-declarative visual problem.
Also we have a broad range of 'learning difficulties' that result from Fine and/or Gross Motor Skills problems. Too numerous to mention.

These are just a few examples of non-declarative disorders which seriously effect learning.
But the crucial factor, is that these non-declarative disorders can be relearnt and overcome.
Though their is little if any attention given to the development of non-declarative skills. Where it is assumed that they are already perfectly developed?
Therefore I would suggest that non-declarative skills development should be an overarching educational focus. To help Students build a complete Tool-Kit to encounter Learning!
Where an Experiential Learning approach, is more supportive of the development of non-declarative skills.

To learn what to think, or how to think?
Geoff.




Hi Geoff

I used bike riding and swimming as just quick examples. Of course they are a narrow range... This is what I feel. Not very "causal" is it. I feel that nondeclarative memory has a great hidden mystery to it that we have never accessed. I believe that we try to assess nondeclarative memory and learning in much the same manner as we do declarative memory and learning. I also believe that experiential learning leans heavily toward nondeclarative memory. You are correct about cross over responsibilities of the cerebral hemispheres and this along with the thalamus and other critical junctions is where things can break down. Of course I am speaking of interneurons and synapses and a number of other places that thing might need repair. I know this sounds unscientific but I am just a beginner when it comes to this.... and you know what......it feels great to feel like a beginner. As Professor Kurt Fischer said in one of his talks...paraphrased but close...To learn like a child, you must first act like a child. He was refering to getting down to the prior learning and ask questions like a child and be excited....I did that at a Harvard Institute because I was so excited to be learning about the brain that I am afraid that I will not be forgiven....Well I will put on my coat and tie and take notes...I do not learn that way! I asked too many questions. Well, enough of that. I am really interested in this stuff and if that is acting like a child....then so be it.

I have started a simple literature research project on assessing nondeclarative memory/learning. It will be fun. Keep in touch!
Best,
Rob
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Old 18-08-2005, 07:10 AM   #73
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Reason

TO GEOF AND ROB

Reading your stuff has helped my own thinking to progres,i have been positive for a long time, that the major part of human mentality is subconcious,my feeling is that we can only uncover that aspect of humaness by the aplication of pure reason,facts without reason (thinking) are meaningless both to a child and a great thinker.
Thankyou for keeping our noses to the grindstone.
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Old 18-08-2005, 10:44 AM   #74
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Hi Rob,
From one child to another!
Your writings on retaining the openness of the mind of a child to learning, immediately reminded me of a quote that Arthur C Clarke wrote about himself:

" He never grew up, but he never stopped growing!"

Which is also my own personal motto.

I'd also add a quote from Anon:

A truly stable system,
expects the unexpected,
is prepared to be disrupted,
waits to be transformed ....

Geoff.

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Old 18-08-2005, 11:04 AM   #75
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Re:

Thanks for this Geoff:

A truly stable system,
expects the unexpected,
is prepared to be disrupted,
waits to be transformed ....

This Anon quote reminds me of the brain!
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