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A Synapse In The Brain Is Really Important


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Old 27-07-2005, 07:18 AM   #1
segarama
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A Synapse In The Brain Is Really Important

I posted this title regarding the SYNAPSE since I believe that a great deal of learning transpires here.

The first thing I do is:
l. Determine why the brain needs synapses.
2. Ask myself why the synapse is so important.
3. Determine if it is really true that we could not live without synapse(s).
4. Determine the biological underpinning of the workings of a synapse in relation to learning.
5. Try to reflect on a picture of a synapse in my mind after seeing an image or photo or graphic.
6. Then let your creative self ask every possible question about the synapse that is created by the first five statements.

First this is not a short one hour process. The studying of a synapse never ceases since it is always important.
Let me start out by having us review the following url...and that should get us going.
Partial retrieval of an article from the internet on 7-26-05 called Embryological Development of the Human Brain by Arnold Scheibel, MD- Development of Synaptic Connections Among Neurons.

Scroll down the URL to the "Development of Synaptic Connections Among Neurons"...

URL: http://www.newhorizons.org/neuro/scheibel.htm

Best,
Rob
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Old 27-07-2005, 04:10 PM   #2
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Picture of a synaptic connection

Please see the post entitled "Another useful image," which is a picture of a synaptic connection: http://www.teach-the-brain.org/forum...page= 2&pp=20
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Old 27-07-2005, 06:30 PM   #3
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A Synapse In The Brain Is Really Important

Today we are going to go just a little further in knowing about the synapse; one of the most important means of learning, memory and communication...not to mention we would probably not be able to live without it under the current evolutionary model.

Please take your time and read the material and look closely at the photos.
URL: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/synapse.html
URL: http://nobelprize.org/medicine/educa...pse/intro.html
URL: http://www.dailycal.org/particle.php?id=13236
URL: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases...1203081719.htm
Be well,
Rob
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Old 01-08-2005, 08:18 AM   #4
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A Synapse In the Brain is Really Important

Hi.......Very good article......CONTROLLING THE SYNAPSE 49 PROTEINS AT A TIME........
Retrieved from the internet on 8-1-05
URL: http://www.hhmi.org/news/darnell2.html

Best,
Rob
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Old 03-08-2005, 01:18 AM   #5
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A Synapse in the Brain

Retrieve from the internet on 8-2-05

The synaptic junction between neurones (quote)

1. Bridging the information gap between neurones

Neurotransmitters are responsible for transmitting information across the synaptic gap between neurones.

Neurotransmitters are stored in synaptic vesicles. When action potentials are conducted down an axon: synaptic vesicles attach themselves to the presynaptic membrane, then break open and spill neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft.
Neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft :
attach to postsynaptic receptor sites and trigger an action potential in the postsynaptic membrane
some neurotransmitter attaches to presynaptic receptors (autoreceptors) located on the membrane (pre-synaptic membrane) of the cell that originally released them.
Be well,

Rob
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Old 03-08-2005, 08:04 AM   #6
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A Synapse In The Brain [Picture of synapse]

You might be interested in the following article. It also has a picture of a synapse and functions.
Be well,

Rob

Retrieve from the internet on August 3, 2005

URL: http://ifcsun1.ifisiol.unam.mx/Brain/synap.htm
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Old 03-08-2005, 02:59 PM   #7
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"We are our synapses"

In his book, The Synaptic Self, Joseph LeDoux asserts, "We are our synapses."

Read a New York Times interview with this renowned professor of neuroscience at the following url: http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstrac...0994DA40448 2
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Old 04-08-2005, 10:45 AM   #8
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A Synapse: Joseph LeDoux

[quote=OECD expert]In his book, The Synaptic Self, Joseph LeDoux asserts, "We are our synapses."


I bet that Joseph LeDoux did not believe in the reticular theory....What do you think?
Best,
Rob
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Old 06-08-2005, 05:49 AM   #9
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A Synapse In The Brain...Team effort...cellular team

It seems that there are many different versions of how a synapse releases their neurotransmitters. I plan to spend more time in studying the neuron and it's cellular organelles regarding signaling both intra and inter neuron(s). Organelles: Quote...Internet dictionary... Parts of a cell that store food, discharge waste, produce energy, or perform other functions analogous to what organs do in large living things.

The two books that I am now reading: The neuron:Cell and molecular biology by Levitan and Kaczmarek... and Causation edited by Sosa and Tooley are quite different in scope, but both extremely interesting.
Eric Kandel has a new book out[2005]...forgot the name of it. Sorry. No memory. Poor synaptic connections today.
Best,
Rob
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Old 07-08-2005, 09:58 PM   #10
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A Synapse in the Brain Is Really Important..[synaptic cleft]

Please check out this synaptic cleft...It is the space between the presynaptic neuon and the postsynaptic neuron....this is where a great deal of action takes place for the purpose of memory and learning. Retrieved this URL August 7, 2005. URL: http://catalog.nucleusinc.com/imagescooked/2728W.jpg
Be well,
Rob
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Old 08-08-2005, 06:03 PM   #11
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A Synapse In the Brain is Really ME!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Hi, The synapse is where it is at...........concentrated work on cell biology and the intraneuronal and interneuronal signalling is really very interesting. I have three books side by side with good authors and I compare their thoughts regarding [in this case] signalling intraneuronal and interneuronal signalling and of course the synapse.[Three books are Nerve endings: The discovery of the synapse...The quest to find how brain cells communicate by Richard Rapport, M.D. [2005]; The neuron:Cell and molecular biology by Levitan and Kaczamarek [2002; and Memory: From mind to molecules by Squire and Kandel [2000]. It takes some real learning on our part since the authors are not here to answer our questions nor should they be. But you can use your learning skills eg. metacognition and form your own constructs and get a super idea of what is happening inside the brain. It will by perforce lead to the most obvious next steps on communications of the neurons and the latest perspectives on neuroglia... doing great research on this at Columbia University.
We have a real choir going on inside our brain...pun intended.

Url retrieved from internet on August 6, 2005.
If anyone has really good photos and descriptions of the presynaptic tissue (?) immediately adjacent to the presynaptic cleft and along with the postsynaptic cleft's membrane and description of it, I would appreciate a leg up.

Interesting URL: http://www.bio.davidson.edu/people/m...sion%20 2.htm

Be well,
Rob
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Old 09-08-2005, 09:24 AM   #12
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Hi Rob,
I must question your statement:" We have a real choir going on inside our brain...pun intended."
Where I would suggest that it is more accurately an ongoing Multi-Media Performance.
The identifying factor of the human brain, is the Networking manner of operation.
It is within the Network that Plasticity occurs.
Learning is primarily the development and redevelopment of new neural Networks. Which are physically built within the brain!
But the crucial factor is that it is built and maintained in direct response to exposure and usage.
Where I see the primary purpose of Schooling, as the comprehensive development of Student's neural Networks.
Also for Students to recognise the control they have over the life long development and redevelopment of their neural Network.
With an emphasis on Life-Long.
Given the revelation of the brain's Plasticity in its Network evolution.
I might suggest that this should be the overarching focus of education?
Empowering Students to take personal control of their Neural Network.

Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligences also appears to be related to this broader issue of Network development?

Just thinking about thinking?
Geoff.
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Old 09-08-2005, 12:23 PM   #13
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A Synapse In The Brain Is Really Important

Dear Just thinking about thinking,

Geoff, totally agree with you about the multimedia event vs the choir... You ended the message with just thinking about thinking which of course sounds just a little like metacognition....and is extremely important.

The rest of the message sounds like you have been doing a great deal of thinking as usual. At what level would we start this type of education; pre school etc. You may be on to something once the cooperating fields of study agree with what we know ourselves. ...and we don't.

I was reading a book last night written by a well know scientist who actually starts out his new book by say in essence that his last book had some errors of substance and is being corrected in this edition. I kind of enjoyed that refreshing statement. I am paraphrasing of course because it is 4 a.m. in Solana Beach, San Diego County where I live.

I am going back to bed...but truly liked your message. I just don't think the public schools are quite ready for it when school opens at the end of the month. The private schools would most likely not implement it either since they are not any further than we. Be well my friend. I like the way you think! Maybe we could pilot this in Aust trail ya'? How may special needs children with severe Pdd have had a (f)MRI or a PET or a regular MRI....? And the results were published were? Have not seen them. Have they been done?
Best,
Rob
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Old 11-08-2005, 07:21 AM   #14
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A Synapse In The Brain Is Really Important..Synapse

Hi....great Url of a synapse.....
Best,
Rob

URL: http://www.digitalfrog.com/resources...es/synapse.mov
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Old 11-08-2005, 12:17 PM   #15
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Hi Rob,
You wrote:At what level would we start this type of education; pre school etc.
Which I take as a reference to my suggestion of an educational focus on neural network development?
Though the crucial factor, is that we are born with a brain that is purely made up of Grey Matter. With 'no' White Matter/ Myelin.
In a state of 'overconnectivity', with no Network in place.
The Myelin Network begins development from Birth, in response to the frequency and pattern of connections.
Of critical importance, is that 'Freeways' are constructed to inter-link the Regions of the brain. Further to this, is the fact that their are different but fixed 'Time-lines' associated with each of these Freeways. Which range from 1 year through to 20 years. If the timelines aren't met, then the potential is lost!
Time extensions are apparently not allowed for.
A notable example, is that it is not until adolescence that effective access to the pre-frontal cortex and frontal lobes starts to occur.
Also the primary connection to the brains 'language centre', completes development around 12 years of age. Which is now being used to argue that a 'second language' needs to be introduced prior to this age. If fluid use of a second language is ever to be achieved.
Yet at the other end, vision and hearing need to be established within the first 2 years, or never.
So my suggestion is that as these different 'regional timelines' are identified.
That meeting these timelines should become a priority.

Though as an extension of my Freeway analogy.
I am particularly interested in whether their is a 'timeline' attached to the next level of brain regions interconnectivity, which I would make an analogy with 'Main Roads', as opposed to Freeways.
Which is where 'learning disorders' more commonly occur?
For example, the 'symbol-sound' connection, as relates to reading and maths disorders. Which is common to every class-room.
Where it is assumed that every Student has effectively developed this neural connection?
I would argue that the focus should initially be on the comprehensive development of 'Brain Functions' that support Reading, so that Students are 'fully equipped' to discover Reading.
Equally this should apply to the learning of Maths. Where basic to this, is the ability to create Visual/Spacial - Mental Images in one's mind, and then crucially to mentally 'manipulate' the image!
This is basic to the mental processing of Arithmetic, and becomes of increasing importance as 'higher order maths' are encountered!
Therefore, as a foundation for the learning of Maths, the development of Student's 'mental imaging' skills should be the initial focus?
I tempted to also go into 'Fine Motor Skills' development as well.

But my basic point, is that it needs to be recognised that what Adults think of as Children 'learning'. Is in fact a process of building a networked brain and gaining the skills to operate it. Including the CNS and PNS of course.
Though the focus on Declarative Information as the benchmark?
Really misses the whole point!
Yet this simply reflects the old idea that the potential of our brain, was defined at our birth!
The times they are a changing?
Geoff.















































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Old 11-08-2005, 05:23 PM   #16
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Periodicity in the brain

It is certainly true than an understanding of brain development, including of temporal plasticity, could greatly inform our education system.

Please note a few clarifications, however. The periods of heightened that underlying various types of learning in humans are sensitive periods, not critical periods. This means that learning occurs most effectively during these periods. However, significant learning can occur outside of sensitive periods. Additionally, not all types of learning have sensitive periods. Finally, sensitive periods are not completely genetically predetermined. The timing of sensitive and critical periods can be altered as a result of experience.

This being said, an understanding of periodicity in the brain should certainly be used to inform educational policy. I was happy to see that you noted sensitive periods that occurred later in life, as it is a common misconception that sensitive periods occur only in early childhood.

Thanks for bring this important issue to our attention,
Christina
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Old 13-08-2005, 06:56 AM   #17
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A Synapse In The Brain Is Really Important

Short article but good: Url:retrieved August 12, 2005 internet.
Enjoy, URL: http://jocn.mitpress.org/cgi/content/abstract/16/8/1412
Rob
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Old 19-08-2005, 03:50 PM   #18
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A Synapse In The Brain is Really Important

Hi,

There is a terrific book if you have not already read it called Synaptic self by Joseph LeDoux. It is worth a good read since the synapes in the brain are you, me and everyone. We could not pass on action potential or messages to other neurons of we did not have synapses.

It would be a good idea to also look closely at this narrow synaptic cleft between the neurons. The target neuon or receptor neuron on the receiving side of the synapse is needing a clear concise and fully executed communication that can only come via the synapse. So as we can see "we are our snynases". [LeDoux 2002]
I retrieved this url today August 19, 2005 from the internet regarding Joseph LeDoux.

URL: http://www.cns.nyu.edu/home/ledoux/s...ic_descrip.htm
URL: http://www.cns.nyu.edu/home/ledoux/s...elf/index.html
Best,
Rob
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Old 19-08-2005, 11:18 PM   #19
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A Synapse in the Brain.....Current Stanford Univ. Research

Good url retrieve today August 19, 2005 from Stanford University.

URL: http://mednews.stanford.edu/releases...ruary/glia.htm
Rob
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Old 29-08-2005, 03:32 AM   #20
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A Synapse In The Brain is Really Important.

Well, this particular page URL retrieved August 28, 2005 from the internet is quite interesting.....
Hope you enjoy it.
Best, URL: http://www.extremeneuroanatomy.c om/index.htm
Rob
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Old 30-08-2005, 05:15 PM   #21
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A Snyapse in the Brain is Really Important.

We [our neurons] just cannot communicate without synapses. If you look at the nerves throughout the body, you will find synapses here and there because of course a neuron is just one neuron and must commicaticate with another neuron via the synapse. Good url retrieved from the internet on August 30, 2005. URL:http://www.hubin.org/facts/brain/tex...ynapse_en.html
Be well,
Rob
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Old 31-08-2005, 04:15 PM   #22
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A Synapse In The Brain Is Really Important.

The synapse in the body or of course brain is very important and we learn more about it each day. We learn more about our own learning process each day and that is fun. I usually like to target an objective and come at it from many sensory sides until I own the knowledge. This url retrieved 8-31-05 from the internet has a very good interactive graphic of a synapse and transduction.
URL: http://www.tvdsb.on.ca/westmin/scien...eo/synapse.htm

Be well,
Rob
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Old 17-09-2005, 12:36 AM   #23
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A Synapse In The Brain Is Really Important...

Since the neuron theory evinces that each neuron be separated by each and every other neuron by a synapse or space between each neuron, we must question the degree of communication deficits that can happen and do happen to adults and children right at the area surrounding the synapse. One of the very earliest synaptic disease is called myasthenia gravis (where nerves stimulate nerve plates).

I aways thought that Parkinson's disease was due to so many dopaminergic nerves that died in the substantia nigra...well actually I am right but Parkinson's is also being referred to as a synaptic disease. Rapport, M.D., R. Nerve Endings: The discovery of the synapse: The quest to find how brain cells communicate [2005] Pg. 199.

...and now that we think clearly about the synapse and that is present throughout the body...it is truly remarkable that we have so few communication disorders. But that is not true either, we have many communcation disorders labeled under a myriad of other diseases. The synapse is very special and will need to be studied in greater depth.
Be well,
Rob
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Old 20-09-2005, 08:14 PM   #24
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A Synapse In The Brain Is Really Important...

Well, as I sit here thinking about the functions of the nervous systems of our body, I cannot help but be amazed at all of the intricate work and complex wiring that we have as human beings. Look closely at learning...and Joseph LeDoux states in his book Synaptic Self...that synaptic plasticity is learning. Actually he may be more correct that he realizes...The child with developmental disabilities and the neurologically typical child, (NT) can be sure that the human body has acted or reacted in some way that has had or not had the prescience to biologically justify...either internally or externally by pernicious invasion.

As I mentioned previously, we need to take another look at the human synapse...and I have decided to do so. It will most likely take the rest of my life, but that is what life is suppose to be about anyway. I see so many possible means for something to go wrong at the neuron/synapse/neuron location. Transduction, lack of myelin on axon, signaling, etc. etc. This is a complicated area....It is almost similar to a religous experience. To study the synapse in-depth, however we must still know the whole body and its functions; otherwise a systems approach could not be researched. The pieces need to fit.
Be well,
Rob
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Old 30-09-2005, 05:35 PM   #25
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A Synapse In The Brain Is Really Important...

As I have continued to mention...the synapse is extremely important...I have had a difficult time finding resources and scientists who can answer many questions regarding the internal house cleaning or mopping up so to speak; getting rid of debris caused by calcium, sodium and potassium along with clogging of post synaptic receptors etc.....With the neuron, the glial cells helped to do garbage detail or clean up. I believe one was the astrocyte and now I know there are others...The glial system is being studied greatly at Columbia University...and I am wondering if the Glial cells do the clean up for the synapses....if no one is cleaning up.....then no wonder there is so much synaptic disease.

The Url that I retrieved from the internet is a basic signal transduction regarding the synapse. I found it useful. It has no information about general support and house keeping of the synapse....I cannot find it. URL: http://www.tvdsb.on.ca/westmin/scien...eo/synapse.htm
Be well,
Rob
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